South American Spanish Dialectology

Country Summaries

Argentina

Buenos Aires porteños, Andalusian; interior cuyanos, conservative.

  1. /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ]
  2. /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʃ]
  3. /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ], [ʝ]
  4. /r/ → [r̥]
  5. /s/ → [h] / ___C
  6. /r/ → [∅] / [e], [i], [a]___ infinitive
  7. /ɲ/ → [nj] / ___V except [i]

Bolivia

Andalusian; very early in highlands, later type brought during late colonial period elsewhere.

  1. /ʎ/ ≠ /ʝ}/
  2. /s/ → [h] / ___$
  3. /x/ → [h]
  4. /r/ → [ʐ]
  5. V → [∅] / [+stress]___ OR ___[+stress]
  6. /ado/ → ['ao]
  7. /r/ → [z̺]

Chile

  1. /t̪͡ʃ/ → [t͡s]
  2. /x/ → [ç] / ___[e] OR [i]
  3. /r/ → [ʐ]
  4. /tɾ/ → [tʐ]
  5. /s/ → [h]
  6. /f/ → [ɸ]
  7. /ʎ/ → [ʝ]
  8. /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ / ___[+vowel +front] i.e. e, i
  9. /ado/ → ['ao]
  10. /tʃ/ → [ʃ]
  11. /tʃ/ → [t͡s], [t̪ˢ]
  12. [hβ̞], [hɣ̞] → [f], [x] after /s/ → [h]
  13. /ɾn/ → [nn]
  14. /bl/ → [ul]
  15. /r/ → [z̺]
  16. /b/, /v/ → [v] / #___
  17. /l/ → [l̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  18. /l/ → [λ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  19. /n/ → [m] / ___§C Bilabial (p b m)
  20. /n/ → [n] / ___§C Alveolar (n s l r)
  21. /n/ → [n̠] / ___§C Alveopalatal (tʃ d ʒ)
  22. /n/ → [n̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  23. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___§C Velar (k g x w)
  24. /n/ → [ɱ] / ___§C Labiodental (f)
  25. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  26. /t̪ɾ/, /d̪ɾ/ → [ʈ͡ʂ], [ɖ͡ʐ] /___
  27. /ɾ/ → [ʐ] OR [ʂ] /___$||
  28. /j/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] OR [d͡ʒ] /___
  29. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§
  30. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [∅] / ___§
  31. /d/ → [∅] /-a___o
  32. /d/ → [∅] /___#
  33. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___
  34. /j/ → [ʝ] /___
  35. /x/ → [ç] / ___VAnt
  36. /s/ → [s̺] /___

Colombia

  1. /x/ → [h]
  2. /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] [+occlusive, -spirant] / C___ OR G___
  3. /l/ → [l̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  4. /l/ → [λ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  5. /n/ → [m] / ___§C Bilabial (p b m)
  6. /n/ → [n] / ___§C Alveolar (n s l r)
  7. /n/ → [n̠] / ___§C Alveopalatal (tʃ d ʒ)
  8. /n/ → [n̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  9. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___§C Velar (k g x w)
  10. /n/ → [ɱ] / ___§C Labiodental (f)
  11. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  12. /j/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] OR [d͡ʒ] /___
  13. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___
  14. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / V___
  15. /j/ → [ʝ] /___
  16. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§CSon
  17. /s/ → [s̺] /___

Eastern Cordillera

  1. /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ] by assibilation
  2. /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished

Nariño

Similar to neighboring highland Ecuador.

  1. V[+vowel -stress] → [∅]
  2. NOT(/'ado/ → ['ao] / ___)
  3. /s/ apicodental, tensely grooved, and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Bolivia, and to some extent Peru)
  4. /s/ → [z] / {___#V} OR {V___V sometimes}

Antioquia

  1. /s/ → [ʃ]
  2. /ʝ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] / V___V

Cauca-Valle

"Standard" Spanish.

  1. NOT(/ɾ/ → [ʐ] OR [ʂ] /___$||)
  2. NOT(/s/ → [ʃ] apicoalveolar )
  3. /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ not distinguished
  4. lacks weak consonantismo of the coasts
  5. /n/ → [m] / ___#|| OR ___#V

Coastal Colombia

Similar to Caribbean.

  1. /s/ → [h] or [∅]
  2. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V
  3. /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l] / ___# lateralization of /r/ and vibrantization of /l/?
  4. /tʃ/ → [tʲ]

Costa Rica

  1. /t/ → [k] in diminutives
  2. /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ]
  3. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___#|| OR / ___#V
  4. /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V
  5. /s/ → [h]
  6. /r/ → [ɹ]

Cuba

  1. /s/ → [h] or [∅]
  2. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V
  3. /r/ → [r̥]
  4. /tʃ/ → [ʃ]
  5. /r/ → -[l] / ___#
  6. /ado/ → ['ao]
  7. /t/ → [k] in diminutives
  8. /l/ + C(voiced) → CC
  9. /l/ + C(unvoiced) → C(voiced) + C
  10. /ɾ/ → C[+voiced] / ___C[-voiced]
  11. /ɾ/ → C / ___C[+voiced]
  12. /p/, /t/, /k/ → [b], [d], [g] / V___V relaxed speech
  13. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§
  14. /t͡ʃ/ → [ʃ] /___
  15. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___
  16. /ɾ/ → [l] /___$
  17. /s/ → [s̺] /___
  18. /l/ → [ɾ] /___$
  19. /n/ → [ŋ] ___$

Dominican Republic

  1. /s/ → [h] or [∅] / ___$
  2. /x/ → [h]
  3. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V
  4. /ʎ/ → [ʝ]
  5. /ɾ/ → semivowel
  6. /ɾ/ → [l]
  7. /ɾ/ → doubling of consonant
  8. /r/ → [r̥]
  9. /r/ → [ʀ̥]

Ecuador

Division between Costa and Sierra. Coast has usual features of costeño Spanish.

  1. /s/ ↛ [h] or [∅] / ___$ pronounced with deliberate tenseness
  2. V → [∅] in unstressed syllables
  3. /ʎ/ → [ʒ]
  4. /s/ → [z] / ___#V
  5. /s/ → [h] or [∅] / ___$
  6. /ɾ/ → [r]
  7. /ado/ → ['ao]
  8. /r/ → [z̺]

El Salvador

Phonology lies between the highland conservatism of Mexico, Colombia, and the Andes, and the lowland "relaxed" trends of coastal Spanish America.

  1. /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___
  2. /x/ → [h]
  3. /x/ → [∅] intervocally in emphatic expressions
  4. /s/ → [h] or [θ] / ___$
  5. /ʎ/ → [ʝ]

Guatemala

Resembles Costa Rican more than El Salvadoran.

  1. /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ]
  2. /x/ → [h]
  3. /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V
  4. /s/ tensely grooved and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Andes)
  5. /r/ → [z̺]

Honduras

  1. /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___
  2. /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V
  3. /x/ → [h]
  4. /f/ → [ɸ]
  5. /ɾ/ → [l] / ___$
  6. /l/ → [ɾ] / ___$
  7. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___#
  8. /s/ → [h] / ___C
  9. /s/ → [h] / V#___
  10. /s/ → [h] / V___V
  11. /s/ → [θ]

Mexico

Intonation, tendency to lengthen the articulation of /s/, general preference for the consonant over the vowel.

  1. /s/ → [h] → [∅]
  2. /e/ in closed syllable more open than the peninsular vowel
  3. V → [∅] / [+vowel +stressed]___ OR ___[+vowel +stressed]
  4. /x/ (jota) prepalatal or postpalatal depending on vocalic environment
  5. /x/ → [h]
  6. /x/ → [χ]
  7. /ʎ/ and /ɣ/ leveled to one phoneme — [ɣ]?
  8. /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V
  9. /ʝ/ → [ʒ] / V___V
  10. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V
  11. /r/ → [z̺]
  12. /ɾ/ → [ɽ]
  13. [t͡s], [t͡ɬ] due to influence from local languages like Nahuatl
  14. /tʃ/ → [ʃ]
  15. /ɾ/ → [z̺] / ___#
  16. /d/ → [θ] / ___$
  17. /l/ → [l̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  18. /l/ → [λ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  19. /n/ → [m] / ___§C Bilabial (p b m)
  20. /n/ → [n] / ___§C Alveolar (n s l r)
  21. /n/ → [n̠] / ___§C Alveopalatal (tʃ d ʒ)
  22. /n/ → [n̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  23. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___§C Velar (k g x w)
  24. /n/ → [ɱ] / ___§C Labiodental (f)
  25. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  26. /j/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] OR [d͡ʒ] /___
  27. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___
  28. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / V___
  29. /j/ → [ʝ] /___
  30. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§CSon
  31. /s/ → [s̺] /___

Nicaragua

  1. /d/ → [∅] / V___V
  2. /x/ → [h]
  3. /x/ → [∅] / V___Vespecially between non-front vowels
  4. /ʝ/ → [∅] / ___[+front + vowel] /e/ OR /i/
  5. /i/, /e/ → [ij], [ej]
  6. /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / [-nasal +consonant]___
  7. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___#
  8. /s/ → [h] → [∅] / ___$
  9. /r/ → [ɾ]
  10. /ɾ/, /r/ → [ɹ]

Panama

  1. /tʃ/ → [ʃ]
  2. /d/ → [∅] / V___V
  3. /d/ → [t] → [∅] / ___#
  4. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___#
  5. /ɾ/, /l/ → [∅] / ___$ especially /ɾ/ at end of infinitives (/r/ more so than /l/)
  6. /ɾ/, /l/ → [h] / ___C /r/ more so than /l/
  7. /s/ → [h] → [∅] / ___$
  8. /d/ → [ɾ] / V___V
  9. /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___
  10. /tʃ/ → [ʃ]
  11. /l/ → [l̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  12. /l/ → [λ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  13. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§
  14. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [∅] / ___§
  15. /d/ → [∅] /-a___o
  16. /d/ → [∅] /___#
  17. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___
  18. /j/ → [ʝ] /___
  19. /s/ → [s̺] /___
  20. /n/ → [ŋ] ___$

Paraguay

  1. /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished
  2. /ʎ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] / V___V
  3. /tr/ → [dʒ]
  4. NOT(/r/, /ɾ/ → [ʐ])
  5. C → [∅] / ___#
  6. /t/, /d/ → [tᵞ], [dᵞ]
  7. /d/ → [t] OR sometimes /ɾ/ / ___+
  8. /b/, /d/ → [∅] / V___V
  9. /b/ → [v] / ____ including #___
  10. /x/ → [ç]
  11. /s/ → [h] / ___#
  12. /s/ → [∅] / ___+
  13. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V
  14. C#V → C[ʔ]V

Peru

  1. NOT(/ʎ/ → [ʝ] / ___)
  2. /ʎ/ → [ʝ]
  3. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V
  4. /tʃ/ → [ʃ]
  5. /r/ → [ʐ]
  6. /r/ → [ʒ]
  7. V → [∅] / [+stress]___ OR ___[+stress]
  8. /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ → [∅] /V ___V
  9. NOT(/s/ → [h])
  10. /l/ → [l̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  11. /l/ → [λ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  12. /n/ → [m] / ___§C Bilabial (p b m)
  13. /n/ → [n] / ___§C Alveolar (n s l r)
  14. /n/ → [n̠] / ___§C Alveopalatal (tʃ d ʒ)
  15. /n/ → [n̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  16. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___§C Velar (k g x w)
  17. /n/ → [ɱ] / ___§C Labiodental (f)
  18. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  19. /j/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] OR [d͡ʒ] /___
  20. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [p], [t̪], [k] / ___$
  21. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___
  22. /j/ → [ʝ] /___
  23. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§CSon
  24. /s/ → [s̺] /___

Puerto Rico

  1. /x/ → [h]
  2. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V
  3. /s/ → [h] → [∅] / ___$
  4. /r/ → [l] / ___$
  5. /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___
  6. /tʃ/ → [tj]
  7. /r/ → [ʀ̥]

United States


Uraguay

  1. /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ]
  2. /s/ → [h] / ___C
  3. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V
  4. /d/ → [∅] / V___V
  5. /x/ → [x]
  6. /l/ → [l̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  7. /l/ → [λ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  8. /n/ → [m] / ___§C Bilabial (p b m)
  9. /n/ → [n] / ___§C Alveolar (n s l r)
  10. /n/ → [n̠] / ___§C Alveopalatal (tʃ d ʒ)
  11. /n/ → [n̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ)
  12. /n/ → [ŋ] / ___§C Velar (k g x w)
  13. /n/ → [ɱ] / ___§C Labiodental (f)
  14. /n/ → [ɲ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ)
  15. /j/ → [ʒ] OR [ʃ] /___
  16. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§
  17. /f/ → [h] / $___
  18. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [∅] / ___§
  19. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___
  20. /s/ → [s̺] /___

Venezuela

For the most part same as Caribbean.

  1. /x/ → [h]
  2. /s/ → [h] or [∅]
  3. /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l], [ʎ], doubling of following consonant / ___#
  4. /ado/ → ['ao]
  5. /ʎ/ → [ʝ]
  6. /t/ → [k] in diminutives
  7. voseo
  8. /e/, /o/ → [e̞], [o̞] /___Sílaba acentuada
  9. /j/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] OR [d͡ʒ] /___
  10. /x/ → [h] / $___
  11. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___
  12. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / V___
  13. /n/ → [ŋ] ___$

Táchira, Mérida, and Trujillo

The articulation is more like highland Colombia.

  1. /s/, /l/, and /r/ are distinguished and clearly pronounced

Rules

Zheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ may be pronounced [ʒ] (zheísmo) /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] Argentina; porteño, south through Patagonia and east of a line running from Córdoba to Bariloche Sheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ become [ʃ] (sheísmo) /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʃ] Argentina; Buenos Aires Assibilacion de /j/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ assibilate to become [ʒ], [ʝ] /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ], [ʝ] Argentina; Santiago del Estero Desonorización de /r/ The voiced alveolar trill /r/ may be devoiced to become the voiceless alveolar trill [r̥] /r/ → [r̥] Cuba. Dominican Republic. Argentina: interior, North. Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ becomes [h] before another consonant /s/ → [h] / ___C esto → [ˈe̞ʰto] Argentina: popular speech. Honduras. Uraguay: except in careful speech. Elísion de /r/ in infinitive The alveolar trill /r/ is dropped when final in infinitive /r/ → [∅] / [e], [i], [a]___ infinitive Argentina; some areas, rapid speech Distincción entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ are not merged /ʎ/ ≠ /ʝ/ halla [haʎa] ≠ haya [aja] Bolivia Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be debuccalized to [h] when syllable final /s/ → [h] / ___$ Bolivia: llanos. Chile. Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Pacific coast. Paraguay: in almost all cases. Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ is debuccalized to [h] /x/ → [h] Bolivia. Columbia. Dominican Republic. El Salvador. Guatemala. Honduras. Mexico: Southern Coasts. Nicaragua. Puerto Rico. Venezuela. Asibilación de /r/ The alveolar trill /r/ is assibilated to become [ʐ] /r/ → [ʐ] Bolivia; antiplano. Chile. Peru. Reducción de vocales dropping a vowel (vowel reduction), in the unstressed syllable, following or preceeding primary stress, is very common V → [∅] / [+stress]___ OR ___[+stress] Potsí (for Potosí), ofsina (for oficina), cochs (for coches) Bolivia. Peru. Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /d/ is often dropped in the participle ending /ado/ /ado/ → ['ao] Bolivia; llanos. Chile. Venezuela. Cuba. Costa Rica. Colombia. Ecuador lowlands. Alveolarización de /t̪ʃ/ The affricate /t̪ʃ/ may be alveolarized to become [t͡s] /t̪͡ʃ/ → [t͡s] Chile Palatalización de /x/ /x/ may become [ç] before e and i /x/ → [ç] / ___[e] OR [i] Chile Asibilación de /tɾ/ /tɾ/ may become [tʐ] /tɾ/ → [tʐ] Chile Bilabialización de /f/ /f/ may be bilabialized to [ɸ] /f/ → [ɸ] fabla → [ɸabla] Chile. Honduras: most of population. Delateralización de /ʎ/ (yeísmo) The palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ may become the palatal approximant [j] /ʎ/ → [j] cayó, calló → [kaˈjo] Dominican Republic. El Salvador. Chile. Peru: highlands of the north, especially among urban, well-educated class. Venezuela. Is this what Canfield meant? Palatalización de las oclusivas sordas /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ may be palatalized before front vowel /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ / ___[+vowel +front] i.e. e, i queso → [ˈceːso] guía → [ˈʝia] jinete → [çiˈn̪eːt̪e] Chile Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal The alveopalatal affricate /tʃ/ may be deaffricatized to [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] Chile → [ˈʃiːle] muchacho → [muʃaʃo] especially when not word-initial Chile: lower-class. Cuba. Mexico: Northern Western Mexico, and variants influenced by Mayan languages. Panama: Panama City; less educated speakers. Peru: sometimes. Alveolarización de /t̪ʃ/ The affricate /tʃ/ may be alveolarized to [t͡s] or [t̪ˢ] /tʃ/ → [t͡s], [t̪ˢ] Chile; upper-class Desbucalización de las fricativas velares [h]+[β̞], [h]+[ɣ̞] may be debuccalized to [f], [x], after /s/ becomes [h] [hβ̞], [hɣ̞] → [f], [x] after /s/ → [h] resbaló → [rɛfaˈloː]; rasgó → [raˈxoː] Chile Asimilación total de /ɾ/ /ɾn/ may be assimilated to [nn] /ɾn/ → [nn] jornada → [xonˈn̪aː] Chile Vocalización de /b/ /b/ may be transformed to [u] before an l /b/ → [u] / ___l inolvidable → [in̪olˈβ̞jaːule] Chile Falta de espirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ may remain [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel, and not be spirantized /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] [+occlusive, -spirant] / C___ OR G___ verde → ['βerde], not ['βerðe] Colombia Asibilación de /r/ The alveolar trill /r/, the cluster /tɾ/, and the alveolar tap /ɾ/ may assibilate to [ʐ], [tʐ], [ʐ] /r/, /tɾ/, /ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], [ʐ] by assibilation Colombia. Costa Rica; except in Guanacaste and on Pacific coast. Guatemala. Diferencia entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished Colombia. Paraguay. Reducción de vocales vowels may be dropped in unstressed syllables V[+vowel -stress] → [∅] partes → [parts], etc. Colombia Falta de elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /d/ is not dropped in past participles ending in -ado NOT(/'ado/ → ['ao] / ___) Colombia /s/ sibilante y estriado The alveolar fricative /s/ is apicodental, tensely grooved, and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Bolivia, and to some extent Peru) /s/ is apicodental, tensely grooved, and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Bolivia, and to some extent Peru) Colombia Sonorización de la fricativa /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may become [z] when word final before vowel, and even intervocalically, sometimes /s/ → [z] / {___#V} OR {V___V sometimes} Colombia Apicoalveolarización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be apicoalveolarized to [ʃ] /s/ → [ʃ] Colombia; in many speakers Africación de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ is so tense it is heard as an affricate [ɟ͡ʝ], intervocalically /ʝ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] / V___V Colombia Falta de asibilación de vibrante simple The alveolar trill /r/ is not assibilated to [ʐ] or [ʂ] NOT(/ɾ/ → [ʐ] OR [ʂ] /___$||) Colombia Falta de apicoalveolarización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ is not apicoalveolar NOT(/s/ → [ʃ] apicoalveolar ) Colombia Falta de diferencia entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ are not distinguished /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ not distinguished Colombia Consonantismo fuerte lacks weak consonantismo of the coasts lacks weak consonantismo of the coasts Colombia Bilabialización de /n/ en final de palabra /n/ is bilabialized to [m] when word final before a pause or a vowel /n/ → [m] / ___#|| OR ___#V pan → [pam] Colombia Nivelación de /r/ y /l/ The alveolar trill /r/ and the alveolar lateral approximant /l/ may become [r], [l] when word final /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l] / ___# lateralization of /r/ and vibrantization of /l/? Colombia Not sure what this means. Palatalización de /tʃ/ The velar affricate /tʃ/ may become palatalized to [tʲ] /tʃ/ → [tʲ] Colombia Velarización de /t/ en diminutivos The dental stop /t/ may be velarized to [k] in diminutives /t/ → [k] / ___in diminutives momentito → [momen'tiko] Venezuela; also common in Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic Velarizacion de /n/ The alveolar nasal /n/ may be velarized to [ɲ] when word final before pause or vowel /n/ → [ɲ] / ___#|| OR / ___#V en amor → [eɲa'mor] muy bien → [mwy bjeɲ] bien hecho → [bjeɲ etʃo] Costa Rica. Honduras. Nicaragua. Panama. Aproximatización de vibrante The alveolar trill /r/ may become the approximant [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ] Costa Rica Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be debuccalized to [h] or dropped entirely when syllable final /s/ → [h] → [∅] / ___$ disfrutar → ['difrutar]; fresco → ['freco]; despues → [de'pue] Cuba. Colombia. Venezuela. Dominican Republic. Ecuador: lowlands. Nicaragua: very widespread in all but most formal contexts. Panama: uniform except in some careful, professional speech. Puerto Rico. Lateralización de vibrante múltiple The alveolar trill /r/ may be lateralized to [l] when word-final /r/ → [l] / ___# Cuba Vocalización de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may become the semivowel [i̯] /ɾ/ → [i̯] [+semivowel] / ___$ carne → ['kaine] Dominican Republic; in the north Canfield doesn't say ___$; that's from Piñeros Lateralización de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may be lateralized to become [l], usually at the end of a syllable /ɾ/ → [l] / ___$ carne → ['kalne] Dominican Republic: Santo Domingo. Honduras: some areas in interior. Asimilación total de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may be dropped and the following consonant doubled /ɾ/ → CC / ___C carne → ['kanne] Dominican Republic Uvulación y desonorización de /r/ The voiced alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced as the unvoiced uvular trill [ʀ̥] /r/ → [ʀ̥] tierra → ['tjeʀ̥a] Dominican Republic: extreme Southeast. Puerto Rico: practically all of the country. Falta de Desbucalización de /s The alveolar fricative /s/ is pronounced with deliberate tenseness /s/ pronounced with deliberate tenseness Ecuador; serrano, as in Mexico, Bolivia, Peru Reducción de vocales Vowels are reduced or dropped entirely in unstressed syllables V → [∅] / ___in unstressed syllables oficina → [of'sina]; accidentes → [aksi'dents]; pase usted → [pas'sted] Ecuador; serrano Asibilación de /ʎ/ The palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ may become the postalveolar fricative [ʒ] /ʎ/ → [ʒ] valla → ['βaʒa]; opposed to /j/ = [j] Ecuador; central core Sonorización de la fricativa /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be pronounced [z] when word final before vowel /s/ → [z] / ___#V las aguas → [laz 'aɣwas] Ecuador; central core; almost unique in America Multiplicación de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may become the alveolar trill [r] /ɾ/ → [r] Ecuador; lowlands Falta de espirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ are pronounced [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___ verde → ['βerde], not ['βerðe] verdad → [bel'da] El Salvador. Honduras. Panama: afro-antillanos. Puerto Rico: tendancy. Elisión de fricativas The velar fricative /x/ may be dropped intervocally in emphatic expressions /x/ → [∅] / V___Vintervocally in emphatic expressions pendejo → [pen'deo]; México → ['meiko] El Salvador Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be pronounced [h] or [θ] when syllable final /s/ → [h] or [θ] / ___$ El Salvador /s/ sibilante y estriado The alveolar fricative /s/ tensely grooved and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Andes) The alveolar fricative /s/ tensely grooved and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Andes) Guatemala Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V bella → [beja] capilla → [ka'pia]; sometimes becomes [ʒ] Costa Rica. Guatemala. Honduras. Mexico. Vibrantización de /l/ The lateral approximant /l/ may be pronounced [ɾ] when syllable final /l/ → [ɾ] / ___$ Honduras; some areas in interior Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be debuccalized to [h] when word initial after a vowel /s/ → [h] / V#___ la semana → [la'hemana] Honduras; many areas Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may become [h] when intervocalic within a word /s/ → [h] / V___V presidente → [prehi'ðente] Honduras; many areas Dentalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be pronounced [θ] /s/ → [θ] Honduras; some speakers Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be prounced [h] or completely dropped /s/ → [h] → [∅] Mexico Abrimiento de las vocales medias The vowel /e/ in closed syllable more open than the peninsular vowel /e/ in closed syllable more open than the peninsular vowel Mexico Reducción de vocales Vowel reduction, in the unstressed syllable, following or preceeding primary stress, is very common V → [∅] / [+vowel +stressed]___ OR ___[+vowel +stressed] trastos → [ˈtɾasts]; pesos, pesas, peces → [ˈpesᵊs]; pastas, pastes, pastos → [ˈpasts] Mexico Asimilación de /x/ /x/ (jota) prepalatal or postpalatal depending on vocalic environment /x/ (jota) prepalatal or postpalatal depending on vocalic environment Mexico Uvularización de /x/ /x/ may be pronounced [χ] /x/ → [χ] Mexico; Oaxaca, Mayan influence Nivelicación de /ʎ/ y /ɣ/ /ʎ/ and /ɣ/ leveled to one phoneme /ʎ/ and /ɣ/ leveled to one phoneme — [ɣ]? Mexico Assibilacion de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ may be pronounced [ʒ] when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [ʒ] / V___V caballo → [kaβ'aʒo] Mexico; Oaxaca, elsewhere Velarización de /n/ /n/ may be pronounced [ŋ] before a pause or an initial vowel in following word /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V Mexico: Southern Mexico, Yucatán. Paraguay: only sporadically. Peru: highlands. Puerto Rico. Uraguay: uniformly. Colombia. Cuba. Dominican Republic. Fricativación de /r/ The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [z̺] /r/ → [z̺] Mexico; uncommon, perhaps attitudinal Retroflexión de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ has retroflex variant [ɽ] /ɾ/ → [ɽ] Mexico; Yucatán Voiceless alveolar affricate [t͡s] and lateral alveolar affricate [t͡ɬ] [t͡s], [t͡ɬ] due to influence from local languages like Nahuatl [t͡s], [t͡ɬ] due to influence from local languages like Nahuatl tlapalería → [t͡ɬapaleˈɾia]; Xola → [ˈʃola] Mexico Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora The voiced dental plosive /d/ is dropped when intervocalic in many contexts /d/ → [∅] / V___V in many contexts Nicaragua. Panama. Uraguay: frequently, in all registers. Elisión de oclusivas dental y bilabial sonoras /b/, /d/ may be dropped when intervocalic /b/, /d/ → [∅] / V___V Paraguay Elisión de fricativas /x/ may be dropped when intervocalic, especially between non-front vowels /x/ → [∅] / V___Vespecially between non-front vowels trabajo → [tra'βao] Nicaragua Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ may be dropped when intervocalic with /e/ and /i/ /ʝ/ → [∅] / ___[+front + vowel] /e/ OR /i/ gallina → [ga'ina]; sello → ['seo]; calle → ['cae] Nicaragua Diptongos hiper-corregidos /i/, /e/ may be pronounced [ij], [ej] (hypercorrection) /i/, /e/ → [ij], [ej] hypercorrection María → [ma'rija]; vea → ['veja] Nicaragua Falta de espirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ may be pronounced [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any non-nasal consonant /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / [-nasal +consonant]___ algo → ['algo], not ['alɣo]; alba → ['alba]; arde → ['arde] Nicaragua Reducción de vibrante múltiple The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [ɾ] /r/ → [ɾ] Nicaragua; speakers for whom Spanish is a second language Aproximatización de vibrantes /ɾ/, /r/ may be pronounced [ɹ] /ɾ/, /r/ → [ɹ] Nicaragua; speakers for whom Spanish is a second language Desonorización en fin de sintagma /d/ may be pronounced [t] or most often [∅] at end of syntagma /d/ → [t] → [∅] / ___# Panama Elisión de consonantes líquidas /ɾ/, /l/ may be dropped when syllable final, especially /ɾ/ at end of infinitives (/r/ more so than /l/) /ɾ/, /l/ → [∅] / ___$ especially /ɾ/ at end of infinitives (/r/ more so than /l/) Panama; lower classes, countryside Desbucalización de consonantes líquidas /ɾ/, /l/ may be pronounced [h] (or less frequently [∅]) before a consonant (/r/ more so than /l/) /ɾ/, /l/ → [h] / ___C /r/ more so than /l/ Panama; lower classes, countryside Vibrantización de oclusiva dental /d/ may be pronounced [ɾ] when intervocalic /d/ → [ɾ] / V___V adobe → [aɾobe] Panama; afro-antillanos Africación de /ʎ/ /ʎ/ may be pronounced [ɟ͡ʝ] when intervocalic /ʎ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] / V___V Paraguay; frequently Alveolarización de los grupos de oclusiva dental + vibrante /tr/ may be pronounced alveolarized /tr/ → [dʒ] Is [dʒ] the alveolarized form of /tr/? Paraguay Asibilación de vibrantes The vibrants /r/ are /ɾ/ are not pronounced [ʐ] NOT(/r/, /ɾ/ → [ʐ]) Paraguay Elisión de consonante en final de palabra C may be dropped in word final position C → [∅] / ___# Paraguay; mostly Velarización de oclusiva dental /t/, /d/ may be pronounced [tᵞ], [dᵞ] /t/, /d/ → [tᵞ], [dᵞ] Paraguay; frequency unclear Desonorización de oclusiva dental /d/ may be pronounced [t] (or sometimes /ɾ/) when syntagma-final /d/ → [t] OR sometimes /ɾ/ / ___+ amistad → [amistat] Paraguay Labiodentalización de /b/ /b/ may be pronounced [v] (including when word-initial) /b/ → [v] / ____ including #___ Paraguay Palatalización de /x/ /x/ may be pronounced [ç] /x/ → [ç] Paraguay Elisión de fricativas The alveolar fricative /s/ may be dropped when syntagma-final /s/ → [∅] / ___+ Paraguay; mostly Misterio Linski C#V → C[ʔ]V C#V → C[ʔ]V Huh? Paraguay Falta de fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ is not pronounced [ʝ] NOT(/ʎ/ → [ʝ] / ___) Peru; highlands of the south, Cuzco, Puno Asibilación de /r/ The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [ʒ] /r/ → [ʒ] mirar → [miʒaʒ] Peru; south, from Cuzco to Puno Elisión de oclusivas sonoras entre vocales /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ may be dropped entre vocales /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ → [∅] /V ___V trabajo → [tra'ajo]; cansada→ [kans'aa] mantequilla → [mante'kia]; rodilla → [rod'ia]; brillo → [br'io] Peru; Cuzco; strong tendency in Lima Falta de Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ ↛ [h] NOT(/s/ → [h]) Peru Lateralización de vibrante The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [l] when syllable final (lambdacismo) /r/ → [l] / ___$ verdad → [βelda] Puerto Rico; 30% in San Juan; lower classes, rural speakers check: /r/ or /ɾ/? Palatalización de /tʃ/ /tʃ/ may be pronounced [tj] /tʃ/ → [tj] noche → [notje] Puerto Rico; except parts of southwest Zheísmo and sheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ may be pronounced [ʒ] or [ʃ] /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] Uraguay; [ʃ] not as common as in Buenos Aires Preservación de /x/ /x/ = [x] /x/ → [x] Uraguay Fusión de /r/ y /l/ en final de palabra The alveolar trill /r/ and the alveolar lateral approximant /l/ may be pronounced [r], [l], [ʎ], or doubling of following consonant, when word final /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l], [ʎ], doubling of following consonant / ___# Venezuela Voseo voseo voseo Venezuela; Zulia and some parts of Falcón and Trujillo Distincción entre /s/, /l/, and /r/ /s/, /l/, and /r/ are distinguished and clearly pronounced / ___$ Venezuela