South American Spanish Dialectology

Recordings of Selected Phonological Rules

    Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /d/ is often dropped in the participle ending /ado/ /ado/ → ['ao] Venezuela yy, Bolivia; llanos. Chile. Venezuela. Cuba. Costa Rica. Colombia. Ecuador lowlands. Canfield ado→ao
    Vocalización de /b/ /b/ may be transformed to [u] before an l /b/ → [u] / ___l inolvidable → [in̪olˈβ̞jaːule] Venezuela yy, Chile Wikipedia bl→ul
    Elisión de oclusivas sonoras entre vocales /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ may be dropped entre vocales /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ → [∅] /V ___V trabajo → [tra'ajo]; cansada→ [kans'aa] mantequilla → [mante'kia]; rodilla → [rod'ia]; brillo → [br'io] Venezuela yy, Peru; Cuzco; strong tendency in Lima Cervantes bdgy→∅/V___V
    Spirantization of voiced plosives Espirantización de plosivos sonantes The voiced plosives /b/, /d/, /ɟ/, /g/ may be spirantized to [β], [ð], [ʝ], [ɣ] when prenuclear non-initial or postnuclear in rapid speech /b/, /d/, /ɟ/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ʝ], [ɣ] / V___§ normal speech OR §___ rapid speech [+plosive +voiced] → [-plosive +fricative +voiced] / V___§ normal speech OR §___ rapid speech abril → [aβril] General Guitart Gsovp
    Collapsing of /b/ and /v/ when word-initial Collapsing de /b/ y /v/ when word-initial /b/ may be pronounced as [v] when word-initial /b/, /v/ → [v] / #___ /b/, /v/ → [v] / #___ voy → [voj]; beso → ['veso] Chile Why isn't the rule just "/b/ → [v]"? Guitart Gcobavww
    Devoicing spirantization of /d/ Desonorización y espirantización de /d/ /d/ may be spirantized and devoiced at the end of a syllable /d/ → [θ] / ___$ /d/ → [θ] / ___$ claridad → [klari'ðaθ]; admitir → [aθmi'tir] Madrid, Mexico City Guitart Gdsod
    Deletion of final /d/ Elisión de /d/ en fin de silaba /d/ may be dropped when syllable-final /d/ → [∅] / ___$ [+plosive +voiced +dental] → [∅] / ___$ mitad → [mit'a]; padre → [par'e] Caribbean, elsewhere Guitart Gdofd
    Debuccalization of /f/ when postnuclear before consonant Desbucalización de /f/ posnuclear antes de consonante /f/ is debuccalized to [h] when postnuclear before consonant /f/ → [h] / §___C /f/ → [h] when postnuclear before consonant difteria → [dih'terja] Various regions Guitart Gdoswpbc
    Voicing of unvoiced fricatives Sonorización de fricativos sordos The unvoiced fricatives /f/, /s/ and /x/ are voiced to become [v], [z] and [ɣ] when postnuclear and andante /f/, /s/, /x/ → [v], [z], [ɣ] / §___ andante [-voiced +fricative] → [+voiced +fricative] / §___ andante desde → ['dezde]; reloj roto → [re'loɣ'roto] General Guitart Gvouf
    Fusion of voiceless fricatives Fusion de fricativos sordos The geminates /ff/, /ss/, /xx/ lose their gemination when intervocalic /ff/, /ss/, /xx/ → [f], [s], [x] / V___V conversación normal [+gemminate +fricative +voiceless] → [-gemminate +fricative +voiceless] / V___V conversación normal los señores → [lose'ɲores] General Guitart Gfuvf
    Diptongos hiper-corregidos /i/, /e/ may be pronounced [ij], [ej] (hypercorrection) /i/, /e/ → [ij], [ej] hypercorrection María → [ma'rija]; vea → ['veja] Venezuela yy, Nicaragua Lipski ie→ijej
    Palatalización de las oclusivas sordas /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ may be palatalized before front vowel /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ / ___[+vowel +front] i.e. e, i queso → [ˈceːso] guía → [ˈʝia] jinete → [çiˈn̪eːt̪e] Venezuela yy, Chile Wikipedia kɡx/___vowelfrontcomieeicom
    Assimilation of /l/ Asimilación de /l/ /l/ before a voiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be gemminate /l/ → C / ___C[+voiced] /l/ + C(voiced) → CC el gato → [eg'gato]; Western Cuba Guitart Gaol
    Assimilation of /l/ Asimilación de /l/ /l/ before an unvoiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be voiced /l/ → C[+voiced] / ___C[-voiced] /l/ + C(unvoiced) → C(voiced) + C el pobre → [eb'poβre]; Western Cuba Guitart Gsaaol
    Deconsonantization of /l/ Deconsonantización de /l/ /l/ may become [j] when postnuclear and preconsonantal ("desconsonantización") /l/ → [j] / §___C /l/ → [j] when postnuclear and preconsonantal ("desconsonantización") algo → ['aɟɣo]; rural Northern Dominican Republic Guitart Gdol
    Dentalization of /l/ Dentalización de /l/ /l/ is dentalized before /t/ and /d/ /l/ → [l̪] / ___ /t/, /d/ /l/ + /t/, /d/ → [l̪] el toto → [el̪'tono]; el día → [el̪'dia] General Guitart Gdol
    Vibrantization of /l/ Vibrantización de /l/ /l/ may be vibrantized to [ɾ] /l/ → [ɾ] / ___ /l/ → [ɾ] alma → ['aɾma]; South of Spain Guitart Gvol
    Palatalization of /l/ Palatalización de /l/ /l/ is palatalized to [ʎ] before /j/ /l/ → [ʎ] / ___/j/ /l/ + /j/ → [ʎ] el yeso → [eʎ'yeso] General Guitart Gpol
    Elision of /l/ when word final after /i/ Elision de /l/ en fin de palabra después de /i/ /l/ may be dropped when word final after /i/ /l/ → [∅] / /i/___# /l/ → [∅] when word final after /i/ abril → [a'βri]; rural Northern Dominican Republic Guitart Geolwwfai
    Elision of /l/ in word final unstressed syllable Elision de /l/ en sílaba atónica en fin de palabra /l/ may be dropped when word final, not before a consonant, and in an unstressed syllable /l/ → [∅] / [-stressed +vowel]___#[-consonant] /l/ → [∅] when word final, not before consonant, in unstressed syllable ángel → ['aɲhe]; rural Northern Dominican Republic Guitart Geoliwfus
    Assimilation of nasals Asimilación de nasales /m/, /n/ assimilate with a following consonant /m/, /n/ → N' / ___C N' is assimilated nasal depending on C /m/, /n/ assimilate with following consonant himno → ['inno]]; envase → ['embase]; álbum nuevo → ['albun'nuevo]; son peruanos → ['som'peru'anos]; álbum lleno → ['albuɲ'ɟeno] General Guitart Gaon
    Dentalization of nasal consonants Dentalización de consonantes nasales /m/, /n/ + /t/, /d/ → [n̪] + [t], [d] /m/, /n/ → [n̪] / ___/t/, /d/ [+nasal +consonant -dental] → [+nasal +consonant + dental] / ___ [+dental +consonant] álbum tropical → ['albun̪tropi'kal]; álbum de fotos → ['albun̪de'fotos]; son tres → ['son̪'tres]; son dos → ['son̪dos]; cuento → [ku'en̪to]; donde → ['don̪de] General Guitart Gdonc
    Assimilation of nasals 2 Asimilación de nasales 2 The nasales /m/ and /n/ are assimilated to [ŋ] before [k], [g], and [x] /m/, /n/ → [ŋ] / ___ [k], [g], [x] /m/, /n/ + /k/, /g/, /x/ → [ŋ] + [k], [g], [x] álbum corto → ['albuŋ'korto]; álbum grande → ['albuŋ'grande]; álbum japonés → ['albuŋɟapo'nes]; son cortos → ['soŋ'kortos]; son grandes → ['soŋ'grandes; son japoneses → ['soŋ'japo'neses]; cinco → ['siŋko]; tengo → ['teŋgo]; naranja → [na'raŋɟa] General Guitart Gaon2
    Velarization of nasals Velarización de nasales The nasals /n/ and /m/ are velarized to [ŋ] when postnuclear before pause (velarización inasimilativa) /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] / §___|| /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] when postnuclear before pause (velarización inasimilativa) pasión → [pas'joŋ]; álbum → ['albuŋ]; Castilla and elsewhere Guitart Gvon
    Assimilation of nasals with /f/ Asimilación de nasales con /f/ /nf/, /mf/ → [ɱf] /n/, /m/ → [ɱ] / ___f /nf/, /mf/ → [ɱf] son franceses → ['soɱfran'seses]; enfermo → [eɱ'fermo] General Guitart Gaonwf
    Velarization of unvoiced plosives Velarización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/ and /t/ become the voiceless fricative [ɣ] when postnuclear in relaxed speech /p/, /t/ → [ɣ] / §___ relaxed speech [+plosive -voiced -velar] → [-plosive +voiced +velar +fricative] / §___ relaxed speech apto → [aɣto]; Pepsi → [peɣsi]; Epcot → [eɣkot] Maritza → [mariɣsa] étniko → [egniko] GeneralGuitart Gvooup
    Voicing of unvoiced plosives Sonorización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ are voiced when intervocalic in relaxed speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [b], [d], [g] / V___V relaxed speech [+plosive -voiced] → [+plosive +voiced] / V___V relaxed speech copa → [koba]; roto → [rodo]; Paco → [pago] Cuba for exampleGuitart Gveoup
    Spirantization of unvoiced plosives Espirantización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ become voiced fricatives in rapid speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] / ___ rapid speech [+plosive -voiced] → [-plosive +fricative +voiced] rapid speech / ___ eclipse → [ekliβse]; atmósfera → [aðmosfera]; examen → [eɣsamen] General Guitart Gsoup
    Deletion of unvoiced plosives Elisión de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ may be dropped when postnuclear in relaxed speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [∅] / §___ relaxed speech [+plosive +unvoiced] → [∅]] / §___ relaxed speech óptimo → [otimo]; Betsy → [besi]; fax → [fas] castellano de CastillaGuitart Gdoup
    Lateralización de vibrante The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [l] when syllable final (lambdacismo) /r/ → [l] / ___$ verdad → [βelda] Venezuela yy, Puerto Rico; 30% in San Juan; lower classes, rural speakers check: /r/ or /ɾ/? Cervantes r→l
    Velarization of /r/ Velarización de /r/ The multiple vibrant /r/ may be velarized to [x] /r/ → [x] / ___ Ramón → [xa'mon]; Puerto Rico Guitart Gvor
    Assibilation of /r/ Asibilación de /r/ /r/ may be assibilated to [z̺] /r/ → [z̺] / ___ /r/ → [z̺] perro → ['pez̺o]; Andes including Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia; Guatemala and elsewhere Guitart Gaor
    Approximation of /ɾ/ Aproximación de /ɾ/ The multiple vibrant /r/ may be pronounced as the approximant [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ] caro → ['kaɹo]; Costa Rica Guitart Gaoɾ
    Uvulación y desonorización de /r/ The voiced alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced as the unvoiced uvular trill [ʀ̥] /r/ → [ʀ̥] tierra → ['tjeʀ̥a] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic: extreme Southeast. Puerto Rico: practically all of the country. Canfield r→ʀ̥
    Uvularization of /r/ Uvularización de /r/ /r/ may be uvularized to [χ] /r/ → [χ] / ___ /r/ → [χ] perro → ['peχo]; Puerto Rico Guitart Guor
    Elísion de /r/ in infinitive The alveolar trill /r/ is dropped when final in infinitive /r/ → [∅] / [e], [i], [a]___ infinitive Venezuela yy, Argentina; some areas, rapid speech Wikipedia r→∅/eia___cominfinitivecom
    Total assimilation of /s/ Asimilación total de /s/ /s/ before a plosive may be dropped and the plosive doubled /s/ → [CC] / ___C Plosive /s/ + C → [CC] where C is plosive los veo → [lob'beo]; los graba → [log'graβa] Puerto Rico Guitart Gtaos
    Aspiration of /s/ when postnuclear before consonant Aspiración de /s/ posnuclear antes de consonante /s/ is aspirated (more precisely debuccalized) or dropped when postnuclear before consonant /s/ → [h] → [ɦ] → [∅] / §___C /s/ → [h] → [ɦ] → [∅] when postnuclear before consonant esto → ['ehto] Carribean and elsewhere; in Buenos Aires only within a word Guitart Gaoswpbc
    Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be debuccalized to [h] when syllable final /s/ → [h] / ___$ Venezuela yy, Bolivia: llanos. Chile. Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Pacific coast. Paraguay: in almost all cases. Canfield s→h
    Voicing of /s/ Sonorización de /s/ /s/ may be voiced when word-final before vowel /s/ → [z] / V___#V [-voice +alveolar +fricative] → [+voice +alveolar +fricative] / V___#V las amigas → [laza'miɣas]; Quito and elsewhere Guitart Gvos
    Sonorización de la fricativa /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be pronounced [z] when word final before vowel /s/ → [z] / ___#V las aguas → [laz 'aɣwas] Venezuela yy, Ecuador; central core; almost unique in America Canfield s→zwhenwordfinalbeforevowel
    Elisión de fricativas The alveolar fricative /s/ may be dropped when syntagma-final /s/ → [∅] / ___+ Venezuela yy, Paraguay; mostly Lipski s→∅
    Velarización de /t/ en diminutivos The dental stop /t/ may be velarized to [k] in diminutives /t/ → [k] / ___in diminutives momentito → [momen'tiko] Venezuela yy, Venezuela; also common in Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic Canfield t→kindiminutives
    Palatalización de /tʃ/ /tʃ/ may be pronounced [tj] /tʃ/ → [tj] noche → [notje] Venezuela yy, Puerto Rico; except parts of southwest Canfield tʃ→tj
    Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal The alveopalatal affricate /tʃ/ may be deaffricatized to [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] Chile → [ˈʃiːle] muchacho → [muʃaʃo] especially when not word-initial Venezuela yy, Chile: lower-class. Cuba. Mexico: Northern Western Mexico, and variants influenced by Mayan languages. Panama: Panama City; less educated speakers. Peru: sometimes. Wikipedia tʃ→ʃ
    Debuccalization of initial /x/ Desbucalización de /x/ en inicio de silaba /x/ is debuccalized to /h/ when syllable-initial /x/ → [h] / #___ /x/ → [h] gente → ['hente] Various regions Guitart Gdoix
    Debuccalization of /x/ Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ may be debuccalized to [h] /x/ → [h] jamón → [ha'mon]; Puerto Rico Guitart Gdox
    Elisión de fricativas The velar fricative /x/ may be dropped intervocally in emphatic expressions /x/ → [∅] / V___Vintervocally in emphatic expressions pendejo → [pen'deo]; México → ['meiko] Venezuela yy, El Salvador Canfield x→∅intervocallyinemphaticexpressions
    Affrication of ɟ Africazión de ɟ /ɟ/ may be affricated to [dʒ] /ɟ/ → [dʒ] /ɟ/ → [dʒ] yo → ['dʒo] ya yo llamé → ['dʒa'dʒoʒda'me] Puerto Rico, jovenes en EE.UU. continental Guitart Gaoɟ
    Assibilation of /ɟ/ Asibilación de /ɟ/ /ɟ/ may be assibilated to [ʒ] or [ʃ] /ɟ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] /ɟ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] ya yo llamé → ['ʒa'ʒoʒa'me] → ['ʃa'ʃoʃa'me] Buenos Aires, Montevideo Guitart Gaoɟ
    /ɲ/ becomes [nj] before vowels other than [i] /ɲ/ se convierte en [nj] antes de vocales excepto [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] before vowels other than [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] / ___V except [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] before vowels other than [i] baño → ['banjo]; Argentina Guitart Gɲbnbvoti
    Assimilation of /ɾ/ (unvoiced) Asimilación de /ɾ/ (sordo) /ɾ/ before an unvoiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be voiced /ɾ/ → C[+voiced] / ___C[-voiced] /ɾ/ + C(unvoiced) → C(voiced) + C cerca → ['segka]; Western Cuba Guitart Gsaaoɾu
    Vocalización de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may become the semivowel [i̯] /ɾ/ → [i̯] [+semivowel] / ___$ carne → ['kaine] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic; in the north Canfield doesn't say ___$; that's from Piñeros Canfield ɾ→semivowel
    Vocalization of /ɾ/ Vocalización de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ may be pronounced [j] when postnuclear /ɾ/ → [j] / §___ /ɾ/ → [j] when postnuclear carta → ['kajta]; rural Northern Dominican Republic and elsewhere Guitart Gvoɾ
    Lateralización de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may be lateralized to become [l], usually at the end of a syllable /ɾ/ → [l] / ___$ carne → ['kalne] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic: Santo Domingo. Honduras: some areas in interior. Canfield ɾ→l
    Lateralization of /ɾ/ Lateralización de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ may be pronounced [l] when postnuclear ("lambdacismo") /ɾ/ → [l] / §___ /ɾ/ → [l] when postnuclear ("lambdacismo") carta → ['kalta]; hablar → ['aβlal]; Puerto Rico Guitart Glaɾ
    Assibilation of /ɾ/ when word final Asibilación de /ɾ/ en fin de palabra /ɾ/ may be assibilated to [z̺] when word final /ɾ/ → [z̺] / ___# /ɾ/ → [z̺] when word final mirar → ['miɾaz̺]; parts of Mexico Guitart Gaoɾwwf
    Approximation of /ɾ/ after tautosyllabic consonant Aproximación de /ɾ/ después de consonante tautosilábica The simple vibrant /ɾ/ may be pronounced as the approximant [ɹ] after a tautosyllabic consonant /ɾ/ → [ɹ] / C___§ /ɾ/ → [ɹ] after tautosyllabic consonant tres → ['tɹes]; Costa Rica Guitart Gaoratc
    Delateralización de /ʎ/ (yeísmo) The palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ may become the palatal approximant [j] /ʎ/ → [j] cayó, calló → [kaˈjo] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic. El Salvador. Chile. Peru: highlands of the north, especially among urban, well-educated class. Venezuela. Is this what Canfield meant? Canfield ʎ→ʝ
    Assibilacion de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ may be pronounced [ʒ] when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [ʒ] / V___V caballo → [kaβ'aʒo] Venezuela yy, Mexico; Oaxaca, elsewhere Canfield ʝ→ʒ/V___V
    Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V bella → [beja] capilla → [ka'pia]; sometimes becomes [ʒ] Venezuela yy, Costa Rica. Guatemala. Honduras. Mexico. Lipski ʝ→∅/V___V
    Reducción de vocales dropping a vowel (vowel reduction), in the unstressed syllable, following or preceeding primary stress, is very common V → [∅] / [+stress]___ OR ___[+stress] Potsí (for Potosí), ofsina (for oficina), cochs (for coches) Venezuela yy, Bolivia. Peru. Canfield V→∅/stress___OR___stress