South American Spanish Dialectology

Phonemic Summaries

Guitart

Fonemas plosivos sordos

Alófonos posnucleares

    Spirantization of unvoiced plosives Espirantización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ become voiced fricatives in rapid speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] / ___ rapid speech [+plosive -voiced] → [-plosive +fricative +voiced] rapid speech / ___ eclipse → [ekliβse]; atmósfera → [aðmosfera]; examen → [eɣsamen] General

Variación lectal de interés

    Voicing of unvoiced plosives Sonorización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ are voiced when intervocalic in relaxed speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [b], [d], [g] / V___V relaxed speech [+plosive -voiced] → [+plosive +voiced] / V___V relaxed speech copa → [koba]; roto → [rodo]; Paco → [pago] Cuba for example Velarization of unvoiced plosives Velarización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/ and /t/ become the voiceless fricative [ɣ] when postnuclear in relaxed speech /p/, /t/ → [ɣ] / §___ relaxed speech [+plosive -voiced -velar] → [-plosive +voiced +velar +fricative] / §___ relaxed speech apto → [aɣto]; Pepsi → [peɣsi]; Epcot → [eɣkot] Maritza → [mariɣsa] étniko → [egniko] General Deletion of unvoiced plosives Elisión de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ may be dropped when postnuclear in relaxed speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [∅] / §___ relaxed speech [+plosive +unvoiced] → [∅]] / §___ relaxed speech óptimo → [otimo]; Betsy → [besi]; fax → [fas] castellano de Castilla

Fonemas plosivos sonoros

Alófonos

    Spirantization of voiced plosives Espirantización de plosivos sonantes The voiced plosives /b/, /d/, /ɟ/, /g/ may be spirantized to [β], [ð], [ʝ], [ɣ] when prenuclear non-initial or postnuclear in rapid speech /b/, /d/, /ɟ/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ʝ], [ɣ] / V___§ normal speech OR §___ rapid speech [+plosive +voiced] → [-plosive +fricative +voiced] / V___§ normal speech OR §___ rapid speech abril → [aβril] General

Variación lectal de interés

    Depalatalization of /ɟ/ Depalatalización de /ɟ/ The palatal fricative /ɟ/ may be depalatalized to become [ʒ] or [dʒ] /ɟ/ → [ʒ] → [dʒ] / ___ [+palatal +fricative +voiced] → [-palatal +post-alveolar +voiced +fricative] → [-palatal +post-alveolar +voiced -fricative +affricate] / ___ Various No spirantization of voiced plosives Falta de Espirantización de plosivos sonantes The voiced plosives /b/, /d/ and /g/ may remain plosive instead of being spirantized /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] / ___ [+plosive +voiced] → [+plosive +voiced] / ___ El Salvador Velarization of voiced plosives Velarización de plosivos sonantes The voiced stops /b/ and /d/ may be velarized to [ɣ] before a consonant /b/, /d/ → [ɣ] / V___C [+plosive +voiced] → [-plosive +fricative +velar] / V___C obsesión → [oɣse'sjon] admitir → [aɣmi'tir] El Salvador Devoicing spirantization of /d/ Desonorización y espirantización de /d/ /d/ may be spirantized and devoiced at the end of a syllable /d/ → [θ] / ___$ /d/ → [θ] / ___$ claridad → [klari'ðaθ]; admitir → [aθmi'tir] Madrid, Mexico City Deletion of final /d/ Elisión de /d/ en fin de silaba /d/ may be dropped when syllable-final /d/ → [∅] / ___$ [+plosive +voiced +dental] → [∅] / ___$ mitad → [mit'a]; padre → [par'e] Caribbean, elsewhere Deletion of intervocalic /d/ Elisión de /d/ entre vocales /d/ may be dropped from past participle ending in -ado and -ido /d/ → [∅] / /a/, /i/___/o/ [+dental +plosive +consonant] → [∅] / /a/, /i/___/o/ cansado → [kans'ao] Caribbean, elsewhere Collapsing of /b/ and /v/ when word-initial Fusión de /b/ y /v/ when word-initial /b/ may be pronounced as [v] when word-initial /b/, /v/ → [v] / #___ /b/, /v/ → [v] / #___ voy → [voj]; beso → ['veso] Chile Why isn't the rule just "/b/ → [v]"?

Fonemas fricativos

Alófonos

    Voicing of unvoiced fricatives Sonorización de fricativos sordos The unvoiced fricatives /f/, /s/ and /x/ are voiced to become [v], [z] and [ɣ] when postnuclear and andante /f/, /s/, /x/ → [v], [z], [ɣ] / §___ andante [-voiced +fricative] → [+voiced +fricative] / §___ andante desde → ['dezde]; reloj roto → [re'loɣ'roto] General Fusion of voiceless fricatives Fusion de fricativos sordos The geminates /ff/, /ss/, /xx/ lose their gemination when intervocalic /ff/, /ss/, /xx/ → [f], [s], [x] / V___V conversación normal [+gemminate +fricative +voiceless] → [-gemminate +fricative +voiceless] / V___V conversación normal los señores → [lose'ɲores] General

Variación lectal de interés

    Voicing of /s/ Sonorización de /s/ /s/ may be voiced when word-final before vowel /s/ → [z] / V___#V [-voice +alveolar +fricative] → [+voice +alveolar +fricative] / V___#V las amigas → [laza'miɣas]; Quito and elsewhere Seseo Seseo “z”, “ce”, and “ci” are pronounced like “s” (seseo) /θ/ → [s] / ___ for orthographic “z”, “ce”, and “ci” (seseo) z, ce, ci → [θ] caza → ['kaθa]; cine → ['θine] Castilla S espesa S espesa /s/ is apicalized ("s espesa") /s/ → [s̺] "s espesa" /s/ → [s̺] Castilla Aspiration of /s/ when postnuclear before consonant Aspiración de /s/ posnuclear antes de consonante /s/ is aspirated (more precisely debuccalized) or dropped when postnuclear before consonant /s/ → [h] → [ɦ] → [∅] / §___C /s/ → [h] → [ɦ] → [∅] when postnuclear before consonant esto → ['ehto] Carribean and elsewhere; in Buenos Aires only within a word Debuccalization of /s/ when word final before vowel Desbucalización de /s/ en fin de palabra antes de vowel /s/ is debuccalized when word final before vowel /s/ → [h] / ___#V /s/ → [h] when word final before vowel es así → ['eha'si] Carribean and elsewhere Debuccalization of /f/ when postnuclear before consonant Desbucalización de /f/ posnuclear antes de consonante /f/ is debuccalized to [h] when postnuclear before consonant /f/ → [h] / §___C /f/ → [h] when postnuclear before consonant difteria → [dih'terja] Various regions Total assimilation of /s/ Asimilación total de /s/ /s/ before a plosive may be dropped and the plosive doubled /s/ → [CC] / ___C Plosive /s/ + C → [CC] where C is plosive los veo → [lob'beo]; los graba → [log'graβa] Puerto Rico Debuccalization of initial /x/ Desbucalización de /x/ en inicio de silaba /x/ is debuccalized to /h/ when syllable-initial /x/ → [h] / #___ /x/ → [h] gente → ['hente] Various regions Assibilation of /ɟ/ Asibilación de /ɟ/ /ɟ/ may be assibilated to [ʒ] or [ʃ] /ɟ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] /ɟ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] ya yo llamé → ['ʒa'ʒoʒa'me] → ['ʃa'ʃoʃa'me] Buenos Aires, Montevideo

Fonemas africados

Variación lectal de interés

    Deaffrication of tʃ Deafricazión de tʃ /tʃ/ may lose its affrication to become [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] mucho → ['muʃo] Panama and elsewhere Affrication of ɟ Africazión de ɟ /ɟ/ may be affricated to [dʒ] /ɟ/ → [dʒ] /ɟ/ → [dʒ] yo → ['dʒo] ya yo llamé → ['dʒa'dʒoʒda'me] Puerto Rico, jovenes en EE.UU. continental

Fonemas nasales

Alófonos

    Assimilation of nasals Asimilación de nasales /m/, /n/ assimilate with a following consonant /m/, /n/ → N' / ___C N' is assimilated nasal depending on C /m/, /n/ assimilate with following consonant himno → ['inno]]; envase → ['embase]; álbum nuevo → ['albun'nuevo]; son peruanos → ['som'peru'anos]; álbum lleno → ['albuɲ'ɟeno] General Assimilation of nasals with /f/ Asimilación de nasales con /f/ /nf/, /mf/ → [ɱf] /n/, /m/ → [ɱ] / ___f /nf/, /mf/ → [ɱf] son franceses → ['soɱfran'seses]; enfermo → [eɱ'fermo] General Dentalization of nasal consonants Dentalización de consonantes nasales /m/, /n/ + /t/, /d/ → [n̪] + [t], [d] /m/, /n/ → [n̪] / ___/t/, /d/ [+nasal +consonant -dental] → [+nasal +consonant + dental] / ___ [+dental +consonant] álbum tropical → ['albun̪tropi'kal]; álbum de fotos → ['albun̪de'fotos]; son tres → ['son̪'tres]; son dos → ['son̪dos]; cuento → [ku'en̪to]; donde → ['don̪de] General Assimilation of nasals 2 Asimilación de nasales 2 The nasales /m/ and /n/ are assimilated to [ŋ] before [k], [g], and [x] /m/, /n/ → [ŋ] / ___ [k], [g], [x] /m/, /n/ + /k/, /g/, /x/ → [ŋ] + [k], [g], [x] álbum corto → ['albuŋ'korto]; álbum grande → ['albuŋ'grande]; álbum japonés → ['albuŋɟapo'nes]; son cortos → ['soŋ'kortos]; son grandes → ['soŋ'grandes; son japoneses → ['soŋ'japo'neses]; cinco → ['siŋko]; tengo → ['teŋgo]; naranja → [na'raŋɟa] General

Variación lectal de interés

    /ɲ/ becomes [nj] before vowels other than [i] /ɲ/ se convierte en [nj] antes de vocales excepto [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] before vowels other than [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] / ___V except [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] before vowels other than [i] baño → ['banjo]; Argentina Velarization of nasals Velarización de nasales The nasals /n/ and /m/ are velarized to [ŋ] when postnuclear before pause (velarización inasimilativa) /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] / §___|| /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] when postnuclear before pause (velarización inasimilativa) pasión → [pas'joŋ]; álbum → ['albuŋ]; Castilla and elsewhere Velarization of nasals 2 Velarización de nasales 2 /n/ and /m/ may be velarized to [ŋ] when syllable-final or word-final /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] / ___§ /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] when syllable-final or word-final un aviso → ['uŋa'viso]; Castilla and elsewhere

Fonemas laterales

Alófonos

    Dentalization of /l/ Dentalización de /l/ /l/ is dentalized before /t/ and /d/ /l/ → [l̪] / ___ /t/, /d/ /l/ + /t/, /d/ → [l̪] el toto → [el̪'tono]; el día → [el̪'dia] General Laminalization of /l/ Laminalización de /l/ /l/ is laminalized to [l̻] / ___/tʃ/ → /l/ → [l̻] / ___/tʃ/ /l/ + /tʃ/ → [l̻] el chino → [el̻'tʃino] General Palatalization of /l/ Palatalización de /l/ /l/ is palatalized to [ʎ] before /j/ /l/ → [ʎ] / ___/j/ /l/ + /j/ → [ʎ] el yeso → [eʎ'yeso] General

Variación lectal de interés

    Vibrantization of /l/ Vibrantización de /l/ /l/ may be vibrantized to [ɾ] /l/ → [ɾ] / ___ /l/ → [ɾ] alma → ['aɾma]; South of Spain Assimilation of /l/ Asimilación de /l/ /l/ before an unvoiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be voiced /l/ → C[+voiced] / ___C[-voiced] /l/ + C(unvoiced) → C(voiced) + C el pobre → [eb'poβre]; Western Cuba Assimilation of /l/ Asimilación de /l/ /l/ before a voiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be gemminate /l/ → C / ___C[+voiced] /l/ + C(voiced) → CC el gato → [eg'gato]; Western Cuba Deconsonantization of /l/ Deconsonantización de /l/ /l/ may become [j] when postnuclear and preconsonantal ("desconsonantización") /l/ → [j] / §___C /l/ → [j] when postnuclear and preconsonantal ("desconsonantización") algo → ['aɟɣo]; rural Northern Dominican Republic Elision of /l/ in word final unstressed syllable Elision de /l/ en sílaba atónica en fin de palabra /l/ may be dropped when word final, not before a consonant, and in an unstressed syllable /l/ → [∅] / [-stressed +vowel]___#[-consonant] /l/ → [∅] when word final, not before consonant, in unstressed syllable ángel → ['aɲhe]; rural Northern Dominican Republic Elision of /l/ when word final after /i/ Elision de /l/ en fin de palabra después de /i/ /l/ may be dropped when word final after /i/ /l/ → [∅] / /i/___# /l/ → [∅] when word final after /i/ abril → [a'βri]; rural Northern Dominican Republic

Sonidos róticos

Variación lectal de interés

    Lateralization of /ɾ/ Lateralización de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ may be pronounced [l] when postnuclear ("lambdacismo") /ɾ/ → [l] / §___ /ɾ/ → [l] when postnuclear ("lambdacismo") carta → ['kalta]; hablar → ['aβlal]; Puerto Rico Assimilation of /ɾ/ (unvoiced) Asimilación de /ɾ/ (sordo) /ɾ/ before an unvoiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be voiced /ɾ/ → C[+voiced] / ___C[-voiced] /ɾ/ + C(unvoiced) → C(voiced) + C cerca → ['segka]; Western Cuba Assimilation of /ɾ/ (voiced) Asimilación de /ɾ/ (sonor) /ɾ/ before a voiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be gemminate /ɾ/ → C / ___C[+voiced] /ɾ/ + C(voiced) → CC cerveza → [seb'besa]; Western Cuba Vocalization of /ɾ/ Vocalización de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ may be pronounced [j] when postnuclear /ɾ/ → [j] / §___ /ɾ/ → [j] when postnuclear carta → ['kajta]; rural Northern Dominican Republic and elsewhere Approximation of /ɾ/ Aproximación de /ɾ/ The multiple vibrant /r/ may be pronounced as the approximant [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ] caro → ['kaɹo]; Costa Rica Approximation of /ɾ/ after tautosyllabic consonant Aproximación de /ɾ/ después de consonante tautosilábica The simple vibrant /ɾ/ may be pronounced as the approximant [ɹ] after a tautosyllabic consonant /ɾ/ → [ɹ] / C___§ /ɾ/ → [ɹ] after tautosyllabic consonant tres → ['tɹes]; Costa Rica Assibilation of /r/ Asibilación de /r/ /r/ may be assibilated to [z̺] /r/ → [z̺] / ___ /r/ → [z̺] perro → ['pez̺o]; Andes including Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia; Guatemala and elsewhere Assibilation of /ɾ/ when word final Asibilación de /ɾ/ en fin de palabra /ɾ/ may be assibilated to [z̺] when word final /ɾ/ → [z̺] / ___# /ɾ/ → [z̺] when word final mirar → ['miɾaz̺]; parts of Mexico Uvularization of /r/ Uvularización de /r/ /r/ may be uvularized to [χ] /r/ → [χ] / ___ /r/ → [χ] perro → ['peχo]; Puerto Rico Debuccalization of /x/ Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ may be debuccalized to [h] /x/ → [h] jamón → [ha'mon]; Puerto Rico Velarization of /r/ Velarización de /r/ The multiple vibrant /r/ may be velarized to [x] /r/ → [x] / ___ Ramón → [xa'mon]; Puerto Rico