South American Spanish Dialectology

Collated List of Phonological Rules

    Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /d/ is often dropped in the participle ending /ado/ /ado/ → ['ao] Venezuela yy, Bolivia; llanos. Chile. Venezuela. Cuba. Costa Rica. Colombia. Ecuador lowlands. Canfield Vocalización de /b/ /b/ may be transformed to [u] before an l /b/ → [u] / ___l inolvidable → [in̪olˈβ̞jaːule] Venezuela yy, Chile Wikipedia Labiodentalización de /b/ /b/ may be pronounced [v] (including when word-initial) /b/ → [v] / ____ including #___ Venezuela yy, Paraguay Lipski Velarization of voiced plosives Velarización de plosivos sonantes The voiced stops /b/ and /d/ may be velarized to [ɣ] before a consonant /b/, /d/ → [ɣ] / V___C [+plosive +voiced] → [-plosive +fricative +velar] / V___C obsesión → [oɣse'sjon] admitir → [aɣmi'tir] El Salvador Guitart Elisión de oclusivas dental y bilabial sonoras /b/, /d/ may be dropped when intervocalic /b/, /d/ → [∅] / V___V Venezuela yy, Paraguay Lipski Falta de espirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ may remain [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel, and not be spirantized /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] [+occlusive, -spirant] / C___ OR G___ verde → ['βerde], not ['βerðe] Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Falta de espirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ are pronounced [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___ verde → ['βerde], not ['βerðe] verdad → [bel'da] Venezuela yy, El Salvador. Honduras. Panama: afro-antillanos. Puerto Rico: tendancy. Canfield Falta de espirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ may be pronounced [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any non-nasal consonant /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / [-nasal +consonant]___ algo → ['algo], not ['alɣo]; alba → ['alba]; arde → ['arde] Venezuela yy, Nicaragua Canfield No spirantization of voiced plosives Falta de Espirantización de plosivos sonantes The voiced plosives /b/, /d/ and /g/ may remain plosive instead of being spirantized /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] / ___ [+plosive +voiced] → [+plosive +voiced] / ___ El Salvador Guitart Elisión de oclusivas sonoras entre vocales /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ may be dropped entre vocales /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ → [∅] /V ___V trabajo → [tra'ajo]; cansada→ [kans'aa] mantequilla → [mante'kia]; rodilla → [rod'ia]; brillo → [br'io] Venezuela yy, Peru; Cuzco; strong tendency in Lima Cervantes Spirantization of voiced plosives Espirantización de plosivos sonantes The voiced plosives /b/, /d/, /ɟ/, /g/ may be spirantized to [β], [ð], [ʝ], [ɣ] when prenuclear non-initial or postnuclear in rapid speech /b/, /d/, /ɟ/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ʝ], [ɣ] / V___§ normal speech OR §___ rapid speech [+plosive +voiced] → [-plosive +fricative +voiced] / V___§ normal speech OR §___ rapid speech abril → [aβril] General Guitart Ensordecimiento de oclusivas sonoras En fin de sílaba, las oclusivas sonoras, /b/, /d̪/, y /g/ pueden perder su sonoridad, lo cual las conviente en [p], [t̪], y [k] respectivamente. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [p], [t̪], [k] / ___$ TBD club → ['klup] pared → [pa.'ɾe̞t̪] magnifico → [mak.'ni.fi.ko] Peru. Costa Rica. Piñeros Espirantización restringida de oclusivas sonoras Después de una vocal, las oclusivas sonoras se articulan sin que se forme un cierre completo en el tracto vocal, sino que se forma un pasaje estrecho o un pasaje amplio por donde el aire sale continuament. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / V___ TBD abogado → [a.βo.'ɣa.ðo] → [a.β̝o.'ɣ̝a.ð̝o] habilidad → [a.βi.li.'ðað] → [a.β̝i.li.'ð̝að̝] Venezuela. Colombia. Costa Rica. Mexico. Piñeros Espirantización extendida de oclusivas sonoras Después de ciertas consonantes, por ejemplo [ɾ], [l], y [z], las oclusivas sonoras se articulan sin que se forme un cierre completo en el tracto vocal, sino que se forma un pasaje estrecho o un pasaje amplio por donde el aire sale continuament. /b/, /d̪/, /g/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] → [β̝], [ð̝], [ɣ̝] / [ɾ], [l], [z]___ TBD verdadero → [be̞ɾ.ða'ðe.ɾo] → [be̞ɾ.ð̞a'ð̞e.ɾo] desgraciado → [dez.ɣɾa.'si̪a.ðo] → [dez.ɣ̝ɾa.'si̪a.ð̝o] Chile. Uruguay. Cuba. Panama. Venezuela. Colombia. Puerto Rico. Peru. Costa Rica. Mexico. Piñeros Vocalización de oclusivas En fin de silaba, las oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d̪/, y /g/, y las oclusivas sordas, /p/, /te̪/, y /k/, pueden convertirse en las semivocales [i̯] o [u̯]. Normalmente las dentales se vocalizan en [i̯]. /b/, /d̪/, /g/, /p/, /t/, /k/ → [i̯] OR [u̯] /___$ TBD concepto → [ko̞n.'se̞u̯.t̪o] OR [ko̞n.'se̞i̯.t̪o dogma → ['d̪o̞i̯.ma] OR ['d̪o̞u̯.ma] admira → [ai̯.'mi.ra]] General Piñeros Collapsing of /b/ and /v/ when word-initial Collapsing de /b/ y /v/ when word-initial /b/ may be pronounced as [v] when word-initial /b/, /v/ → [v] / #___ /b/, /v/ → [v] / #___ voy → [voj]; beso → ['veso] Chile Why isn't the rule just "/b/ → [v]"? Guitart Desonorización de oclusiva dental /d/ may be pronounced [t] (or sometimes /ɾ/) when syntagma-final /d/ → [t] OR sometimes /ɾ/ / ___+ amistad → [amistat] Venezuela yy, Paraguay Lipski Desonorización en fin de sintagma /d/ may be pronounced [t] or most often [∅] at end of syntagma /d/ → [t] → [∅] / ___# Venezuela yy, Panama Lipski Vibrantización de oclusiva dental /d/ may be pronounced [ɾ] when intervocalic /d/ → [ɾ] / V___V adobe → [aɾobe] Venezuela yy, Panama; afro-antillanos Lipski Vibrantización de oclusiva dental sonora Entre vocales, la oclusiva dental sonora se convierte en la vibrante simple [ɾ]. /d/ → [ɾ] /V___V TBD cada → ['ka.ɾa] deuda → ['d̪e̞uɾa] medico → ['me.ɾi.ko] General Piñeros Devoicing spirantization of /d/ Desonorización y espirantización de /d/ /d/ may be spirantized and devoiced at the end of a syllable /d/ → [θ] / ___$ /d/ → [θ] / ___$ claridad → [klari'ðaθ]; admitir → [aθmi'tir] Madrid, Mexico City Guitart Deletion of intervocalic /d/ Elisión de /d/ entre vocales /d/ may be dropped from past participle ending in -ado and -ido /d/ → [∅] / /a/, /i/___/o/ [+dental +plosive +consonant] → [∅] / /a/, /i/___/o/ cansado → [kans'ao] Caribbean, elsewhere Guitart Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora The voiced dental plosive /d/ is dropped when intervocalic in many contexts /d/ → [∅] / V___V in many contexts Venezuela yy, Nicaragua. Panama. Uraguay: frequently, in all registers. Lipski Deletion of final /d/ Elisión de /d/ en fin de silaba /d/ may be dropped when syllable-final /d/ → [∅] / ___$ [+plosive +voiced +dental] → [∅] / ___$ mitad → [mit'a]; padre → [par'e] Caribbean, elsewhere Guitart Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora En fin de palabra y en la terminación -ado, la oclusiva dental sonora /d/ se elide. /d/ → [∅] /___# /d/ → [∅] /-a___o TBD salud → [sa.'lu] comprado → [kom.'prao̯] Chile. Panama. co. Piñeros Abrimiento de las vocales medias The vowel /e/ in closed syllable more open than the peninsular vowel /e/ in closed syllable more open than the peninsular vowel Venezuela yy, Mexico Canfield Abrimiento de las vocales medias En sílaba acentuada, las vocales /e/ y /o/ se producen con mayor abertura, lo cual las convierte en [e̞] y [o̞], respectivamente /e/, /o/ → [e̞], [o̞] /___Sílaba acentuada TBD seco → ['se̞.ko] copo → ['ko̞.po] Venezuela. Piñeros Desbucalización de /f/ inicial En inicio de silaba, la fricativa labiodental sorda pierde sus gestos bucales, lo cual la convierte en [h]. Esto ocurre comúnmente cuanda /f/ aparece antes de una vocal redondeada como [o] o [u]. /f/ → [h] / $___ TBD forma → ['ho̞ɾ.ma] fuerte → ['h̯e̞ɾ.t̪e] Uruguay. Piñeros Debuccalization of /f/ when postnuclear before consonant Desbucalización de /f/ posnuclear antes de consonante /f/ is debuccalized to [h] when postnuclear before consonant /f/ → [h] / §___C /f/ → [h] when postnuclear before consonant difteria → [dih'terja] Various regions Guitart Bilabialización de /f/ /f/ may be bilabialized to [ɸ] /f/ → [ɸ] fabla → [ɸabla] Venezuela yy, Chile. Honduras: most of population. Canfield Bilabialización de /f/ La constricción de /f/ se desplaza de la zona labiodental a la zona bilabial, lo cual resulta en [ɸ]. Lo mas común es que esto suceda cuando /f/ aparece antes de una vocal labializada como [o] o [u]. /f/ → [ɸ] / ___ TBD foto → ['ɸoto] afuera → [a.'ɸu̯e.ɾa] General Piñeros Voicing of unvoiced fricatives Sonorización de fricativos sordos The unvoiced fricatives /f/, /s/ and /x/ are voiced to become [v], [z] and [ɣ] when postnuclear and andante /f/, /s/, /x/ → [v], [z], [ɣ] / §___ andante [-voiced +fricative] → [+voiced +fricative] / §___ andante desde → ['dezde]; reloj roto → [re'loɣ'roto] General Guitart Fusion of voiceless fricatives Fusion de fricativos sordos The geminates /ff/, /ss/, /xx/ lose their gemination when intervocalic /ff/, /ss/, /xx/ → [f], [s], [x] / V___V conversación normal [+gemminate +fricative +voiceless] → [-gemminate +fricative +voiceless] / V___V conversación normal los señores → [lose'ɲores] General Guitart Diptongos hiper-corregidos /i/, /e/ may be pronounced [ij], [ej] (hypercorrection) /i/, /e/ → [ij], [ej] hypercorrection María → [ma'rija]; vea → ['veja] Venezuela yy, Nicaragua Lipski Debilitamiento de vocales En sílaba inacentuada, y especialmente antes de pausa o en contacto con consonantes sordas, las vocales /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/, y /a/ pierden su sonoridad y se acortan, lo cual las convierte en [ᶥ̞], [ᵘ̞], [ᵉ̞], [ᵒ̞], y [ᵘ̞] respectivamente /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/, /a/ → [ᶥ̞], [ᵘ̞], [ᵉ̞], [ᵒ̞], [ᵘ̞] /___Sílaba inacentuada TBD meses → ['me.sᵉ̞s] costo → ['kos̪.t̪ᵒ̞] usted → [ᵘ̞s̪.'t̪e̞ð] General Piñeros Africación de /j/ La semiconsonante palatal se convierte en la africada palatal [ɟ͡ʝ], o alveopalatal, [d͡ʒ]. Esto requiere que la lengua se adhiera a la zona palatal o alveopalatal y que luego se despegue gradualmente. /j/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] OR [d͡ʒ] /___ TBD yunque → ['ɟ͡ʝuŋ.ke] OR ['d͡ʒuŋ.ke] rayo → ['ra.ɟ͡ʝo] OR ['ra.d͡ʒo] Chile. Venezuela. Colombia. Peru. Mexico. Piñeros Asibilación de /j/ La semiconsonante palatal se asiliba para convertirse en la fricativa alveopalatal sonora [ʒ], o sorda, [ʃ]. Este cambio involucra no solamente un aumento en el grado de cierre sino también el desplazamiento de la constricción a la zona alveopalatal. /j/ → [ʒ] OR [ʃ] /___ TBD tuyo → ['t̪u.ʒo] OR ['t̪u.ʃo] calle → ['ka.ʒe] OR ['ka.ʃe] Uruguay. Piñeros Fricativización de /j/ El pasaje amplio que se forma en la articulación de la semiconsonante palatal se reduce a un pasaje estrecho, lo cual resulta en la fricativa palatal [ʝ] /j/ → [ʝ] /___ TBD yo → ['ʝo] lluvia → ['ʝu.βi̯a] mayo → ['ma.ʝo] Chile. Panama. Puerto Rico. Peru. Colombia. Mexico. Piñeros Palatalización de las oclusivas sordas /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ may be palatalized before front vowel /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ / ___[+vowel +front] i.e. e, i queso → [ˈceːso] guía → [ˈʝia] jinete → [çiˈn̪eːt̪e] Venezuela yy, Chile Wikipedia Assimilation of /l/ Asimilación de /l/ /l/ before a voiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be gemminate /l/ → C / ___C[+voiced] /l/ + C(voiced) → CC el gato → [eg'gato]; Western Cuba Guitart Asimilación total de /l/ En fin de sílaba, la lateral alveolar adquiere todos los rasgos de la consonante siguiente, lo cual la convierte en el componente inicial de una geminada. /l/ → CC /___C$ TBD golpe → ['go̞p.p.] talco → ['t̪ak.ko] calma → ['kam.ma] General Piñeros Assimilation of /l/ Asimilación de /l/ /l/ before an unvoiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be voiced /l/ → C[+voiced] / ___C[-voiced] /l/ + C(unvoiced) → C(voiced) + C el pobre → [eb'poβre]; Western Cuba Guitart Vocalización de /l/ En fin de sílaba, la lateral alveolar se convierte en la semivocal [i̯]. /l/ → [i̯] /___$ TBD salto → ['sai̯t̪o] final → [fi.'nai̯] General Piñeros Deconsonantization of /l/ Deconsonantización de /l/ /l/ may become [j] when postnuclear and preconsonantal ("desconsonantización") /l/ → [j] / §___C /l/ → [j] when postnuclear and preconsonantal ("desconsonantización") algo → ['aɟɣo]; rural Northern Dominican Republic Guitart Dentalization of /l/ Dentalización de /l/ /l/ is dentalized before /t/ and /d/ /l/ → [l̪] / ___ /t/, /d/ /l/ + /t/, /d/ → [l̪] el toto → [el̪'tono]; el día → [el̪'dia] General Guitart Asimilación de lugar en laterales En fin de sílaba la consonante lateral adquiere el lugar de articulación de una oclusiva, fricativa, o africada siguiente /l/ → [l̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ) /l/ → [λ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ) TBD alto /álto/ → [ál̪t̪o] (but palco /pálko/ → [pálko] because /k/ is velar) Chile. Uruguay. Panama. Colombia. Peru. Costa Rica. Mexico. Whitley 3.1.3 Piñeros Laminalization of /l/ Laminalización de /l/ /l/ is laminalized to [l̻] / ___/tʃ/ → /l/ → [l̻] / ___/tʃ/ /l/ + /tʃ/ → [l̻] el chino → [el̻'tʃino] General Guitart Vibrantización de /l/ The lateral approximant /l/ may be pronounced [ɾ] when syllable final /l/ → [ɾ] / ___$ Venezuela yy, Honduras; some areas in interior Lipski Vibrantization of /l/ Vibrantización de /l/ /l/ may be vibrantized to [ɾ] /l/ → [ɾ] / ___ /l/ → [ɾ] alma → ['aɾma]; South of Spain Guitart Vibrantización de /l/ La lateral alveolar se convierte en la vibrante simple [ɾ]. Lo más común es que esto ocurra cuando la consonante lateral es final de silaba /l/ → [ɾ] /___$ TBD palma → ['paɾ.ma] fácil → ['fa.siɾ] Cuba. Puerto Rico. Piñeros Palatalization of /l/ Palatalización de /l/ /l/ is palatalized to [ʎ] before /j/ /l/ → [ʎ] / ___/j/ /l/ + /j/ → [ʎ] el yeso → [eʎ'yeso] General Guitart Elision of /l/ when word final after /i/ Elision de /l/ en fin de palabra después de /i/ /l/ may be dropped when word final after /i/ /l/ → [∅] / /i/___# /l/ → [∅] when word final after /i/ abril → [a'βri]; rural Northern Dominican Republic Guitart Elision of /l/ in word final unstressed syllable Elision de /l/ en sílaba atónica en fin de palabra /l/ may be dropped when word final, not before a consonant, and in an unstressed syllable /l/ → [∅] / [-stressed +vowel]___#[-consonant] /l/ → [∅] when word final, not before consonant, in unstressed syllable ángel → ['aɲhe]; rural Northern Dominican Republic Guitart Assimilation of nasals Asimilación de nasales /m/, /n/ assimilate with a following consonant /m/, /n/ → N' / ___C N' is assimilated nasal depending on C /m/, /n/ assimilate with following consonant himno → ['inno]]; envase → ['embase]; álbum nuevo → ['albun'nuevo]; son peruanos → ['som'peru'anos]; álbum lleno → ['albuɲ'ɟeno] General Guitart Dentalization of nasal consonants Dentalización de consonantes nasales /m/, /n/ + /t/, /d/ → [n̪] + [t], [d] /m/, /n/ → [n̪] / ___/t/, /d/ [+nasal +consonant -dental] → [+nasal +consonant + dental] / ___ [+dental +consonant] álbum tropical → ['albun̪tropi'kal]; álbum de fotos → ['albun̪de'fotos]; son tres → ['son̪'tres]; son dos → ['son̪dos]; cuento → [ku'en̪to]; donde → ['don̪de] General Guitart Assimilation of nasals 2 Asimilación de nasales 2 The nasales /m/ and /n/ are assimilated to [ŋ] before [k], [g], and [x] /m/, /n/ → [ŋ] / ___ [k], [g], [x] /m/, /n/ + /k/, /g/, /x/ → [ŋ] + [k], [g], [x] álbum corto → ['albuŋ'korto]; álbum grande → ['albuŋ'grande]; álbum japonés → ['albuŋɟapo'nes]; son cortos → ['soŋ'kortos]; son grandes → ['soŋ'grandes; son japoneses → ['soŋ'japo'neses]; cinco → ['siŋko]; tengo → ['teŋgo]; naranja → [na'raŋɟa] General Guitart Bilabialización de /n/ en final de palabra /n/ is bilabialized to [m] when word final before a pause or a vowel /n/ → [m] / ___#|| OR ___#V pan → [pam] Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Asimilación de lugar en nasales En fin de sílaba la consonante nasal adquiere el lugar de articulación de una oclusiva, fricativa, o africada siguiente /n/ → [m] / ___§C Bilabial (p b m) /n/ → [ɱ] / ___§C Labiodental (f) /n/ → [n̪] / ___§C Dental (t̪ d̪ θ) /n/ → [n] / ___§C Alveolar (n s l r) /n/ → [n̠] / ___§C Alveopalatal (tʃ d ʒ) /n/ → [ɲ] / ___§C Palatal (ŋ ɟ) /n/ → [ŋ] / ___§C Velar (k g x w) TBD bilabial [m]: ambos, enviar, conversar; en Perú, en Venezuela, con Manuel, un mapa labiodental [ɱ]: énfasis, triunfo; en Francia, con Fernando, son fuertes, un fuego dental [n̪]: canta, andando, concepto (in dialects with θ); en Turquía, con David, son dos, un tío alveolar [n]: consta, honra; en Suiza, con nosotros, un lado alveopalatal n̠]: concha; en Chile, con Chávez palatal [ɲ]: inyección, cónyuge, conlleva; un yes, con llamas velar [ŋ]: monja, conquista, hongo; en Cuba, en Japón, con Jaime, son gusanos, un hueco Chile. Uruguay. Colombia. Peru. Costa Rica. Mexico. Whitley 3.1.2 Piñeros Absorción de /n/ En fin de sílaba la nasal alveolar puede ser absorbida completamente por la vocal precedente, lo cual crea una vocal fuertemente nasalizada. Este cambio es más común en fin de palabra, pero tombién puede occurrir en fin de sílabas internas de palabras. /n/ → [ŋ] ___$ TBD según → [se.'ɣũ] panza → ['pã.sa] General Piñeros Bilabialización de /n/ En fin de palabra, la constricción de la nasal alveolar se desplaza de la zona alveolar a la zona bilabial, lo cual crea la consonante [m] /n/ → [ŋ] ___$ TBD Colón → [ko.'lom] pan → ['pam] General Piñeros Velarización nasal En fin de sílaba la constricción de la consonante nasal se forma poniendo el dorso contra el velo, lo cual la convierte en [ŋ] y causa nasalizacioón de la vocal precedente. Este cambio es más común en fin de palabra, pero tombién puede occurrir en fin de sílabas internas de palabras. /n/ → [ŋ] ___$ TBD melón → [me.'lõŋ] cantan → ['kãŋ.t̪ãŋ] Cuba. Panama. Venezuela. Puerto Rico. Piñeros Velarización de /n/ /n/ may be pronounced [ŋ] before a pause or an initial vowel in following word /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V Venezuela yy, Mexico: Southern Mexico, Yucatán. Paraguay: only sporadically. Peru: highlands. Puerto Rico. Uraguay: uniformly. Colombia. Cuba. Dominican Republic. Canfield Velarizacion de /n/ The alveolar nasal /n/ may be velarized to [ɲ] when word final before pause or vowel /n/ → [ɲ] / ___#|| OR / ___#V en amor → [eɲa'mor] muy bien → [mwy bjeɲ] bien hecho → [bjeɲ etʃo] Venezuela yy, Costa Rica. Honduras. Nicaragua. Panama. Canfield Velarization of nasals 2 Velarización de nasales 2 /n/ and /m/ may be velarized to [ŋ] when syllable-final or word-final /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] / ___§ /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] when syllable-final or word-final un aviso → ['uŋa'viso]; Castilla and elsewhere Guitart Velarization of nasals Velarización de nasales The nasals /n/ and /m/ are velarized to [ŋ] when postnuclear before pause (velarización inasimilativa) /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] / §___|| /n/, /m/ → [ŋ] when postnuclear before pause (velarización inasimilativa) pasión → [pas'joŋ]; álbum → ['albuŋ]; Castilla and elsewhere Guitart Assimilation of nasals with /f/ Asimilación de nasales con /f/ /nf/, /mf/ → [ɱf] /n/, /m/ → [ɱ] / ___f /nf/, /mf/ → [ɱf] son franceses → ['soɱfran'seses]; enfermo → [eɱ'fermo] General Guitart Velarization of unvoiced plosives Velarización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/ and /t/ become the voiceless fricative [ɣ] when postnuclear in relaxed speech /p/, /t/ → [ɣ] / §___ relaxed speech [+plosive -voiced -velar] → [-plosive +voiced +velar +fricative] / §___ relaxed speech apto → [aɣto]; Pepsi → [peɣsi]; Epcot → [eɣkot] Maritza → [mariɣsa] étniko → [egniko] GeneralGuitart Voicing of unvoiced plosives Sonorización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ are voiced when intervocalic in relaxed speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [b], [d], [g] / V___V relaxed speech [+plosive -voiced] → [+plosive +voiced] / V___V relaxed speech copa → [koba]; roto → [rodo]; Paco → [pago] Cuba for exampleGuitart Spirantization of unvoiced plosives Espirantización de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ become voiced fricatives in rapid speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [β], [ð], [ɣ] / ___ rapid speech [+plosive -voiced] → [-plosive +fricative +voiced] rapid speech / ___ eclipse → [ekliβse]; atmósfera → [aðmosfera]; examen → [eɣsamen] General Guitart Deletion of unvoiced plosives Elisión de plosivos sordos The voiceless stops /p/, /t/ and /k/ may be dropped when postnuclear in relaxed speech /p/, /t/, /k/ → [∅] / §___ relaxed speech [+plosive +unvoiced] → [∅]] / §___ relaxed speech óptimo → [otimo]; Betsy → [besi]; fax → [fas] castellano de CastillaGuitart Nivelación de /r/ y /l/ The alveolar trill /r/ and the alveolar lateral approximant /l/ may become [r], [l] when word final /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l] / ___# lateralization of /r/ and vibrantization of /l/? Venezuela yy, Colombia Not sure what this means. Canfield Fusión de /r/ y /l/ en final de palabra The alveolar trill /r/ and the alveolar lateral approximant /l/ may be pronounced [r], [l], [ʎ], or doubling of following consonant, when word final /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l], [ʎ], doubling of following consonant / ___# Venezuela yy, Venezuela Canfield Lateralización de vibrante múltiple The alveolar trill /r/ may be lateralized to [l] when word-final /r/ → [l] / ___# Venezuela yy, Cuba Canfield Lateralización de vibrante The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [l] when syllable final (lambdacismo) /r/ → [l] / ___$ verdad → [βelda] Venezuela yy, Puerto Rico; 30% in San Juan; lower classes, rural speakers check: /r/ or /ɾ/? Cervantes Desonorización de /r/ The voiced alveolar trill /r/ may be devoiced to become the voiceless alveolar trill [r̥] /r/ → [r̥] Venezuela yy, Cuba. Dominican Republic. Argentina: interior, North. Canfield Velarization of /r/ Velarización de /r/ The multiple vibrant /r/ may be velarized to [x] /r/ → [x] / ___ Ramón → [xa'mon]; Puerto Rico Guitart Fricativación de /r/ The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [z̺] /r/ → [z̺] Venezuela yy, Mexico; uncommon, perhaps attitudinal Canfield Assibilation of /r/ Asibilación de /r/ /r/ may be assibilated to [z̺] /r/ → [z̺] / ___ /r/ → [z̺] perro → ['pez̺o]; Andes including Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia; Guatemala and elsewhere Guitart Approximation of /ɾ/ Aproximación de /ɾ/ The multiple vibrant /r/ may be pronounced as the approximant [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ] caro → ['kaɹo]; Costa Rica Guitart Aproximatización de vibrante The alveolar trill /r/ may become the approximant [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ] Venezuela yy, Costa Rica Wikipedia Reducción de vibrante múltiple The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [ɾ] /r/ → [ɾ] Venezuela yy, Nicaragua; speakers for whom Spanish is a second language Lipski Uvularización de vibrante múltiple La constricción de /r/ se desplaza de la zona alveolar a la zona uvular resultando en [ʀ] o [χ] /r/ → [ʀ] OR [χ] /___ TBD perro → ['pe̞ʀo] OR ['pe̞χo] rico → ['ʀi.ko] OR ['χi.ko] General Piñeros Uvulación y desonorización de /r/ The voiced alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced as the unvoiced uvular trill [ʀ̥] /r/ → [ʀ̥] tierra → ['tjeʀ̥a] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic: extreme Southeast. Puerto Rico: practically all of the country. Canfield Asibilación de /r/ The alveolar trill /r/ is assibilated to become [ʐ] /r/ → [ʐ] Venezuela yy, Bolivia; antiplano. Chile. Peru. Canfield Asibilación de vibrante múltiple La vibrante simple se asiliba para convertirse en la fricativa retrofleja sonora [ʐ] o sorda [ʂ]. /r/ → [ʐ] OR [ʂ] /___ TBD rosa → ['ʐo̞.sa] OR ['ʂo̞.sa] carro → ['ka.ʐo] OR ['ka.ʂo] Costa Rica. Piñeros Asibilación de /r/ The alveolar trill /r/ may be pronounced [ʒ] /r/ → [ʒ] mirar → [miʒaʒ] Venezuela yy, Peru; south, from Cuzco to Puno Lipski Uvularization of /r/ Uvularización de /r/ /r/ may be uvularized to [χ] /r/ → [χ] / ___ /r/ → [χ] perro → ['peχo]; Puerto Rico Guitart Elísion de /r/ in infinitive The alveolar trill /r/ is dropped when final in infinitive /r/ → [∅] / [e], [i], [a]___ infinitive Venezuela yy, Argentina; some areas, rapid speech Wikipedia Asibilación de /r/ The alveolar trill /r/, the cluster /tɾ/, and the alveolar tap /ɾ/ may assibilate to [ʐ], [tʐ], [ʐ] /r/, /tɾ/, /ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], [ʐ] by assibilation Venezuela yy, Colombia. Costa Rica; except in Guanacaste and on Pacific coast. Guatemala. Canfield /s/ sibilante y estriado The alveolar fricative /s/ is apicodental, tensely grooved, and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Bolivia, and to some extent Peru) /s/ is apicodental, tensely grooved, and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Bolivia, and to some extent Peru) Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Falta de Desbucalización de /s The alveolar fricative /s/ is pronounced with deliberate tenseness /s/ pronounced with deliberate tenseness Venezuela yy, Ecuador; serrano, as in Mexico, Bolivia, Peru Canfield Total assimilation of /s/ Asimilación total de /s/ /s/ before a plosive may be dropped and the plosive doubled /s/ → [CC] / ___C Plosive /s/ + C → [CC] where C is plosive los veo → [lob'beo]; los graba → [log'graβa] Puerto Rico Guitart Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be pronounced [h] or [θ] when syllable final /s/ → [h] or [θ] / ___$ Venezuela yy, El Salvador Canfield Aspiration of /s/ when postnuclear before consonant Aspiración de /s/ posnuclear antes de consonante /s/ is aspirated (more precisely debuccalized) or dropped when postnuclear before consonant /s/ → [h] → [ɦ] → [∅] / §___C /s/ → [h] → [ɦ] → [∅] when postnuclear before consonant esto → ['ehto] Carribean and elsewhere; in Buenos Aires only within a word Guitart Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be debuccalized to [h] dropped entirely when syllable final /s/ → [h] → [∅] / ___$ disfrutar → ['difrutar]; fresco → ['freco]; despues → [de'pue] Venezuela yy, Cuba. Colombia. Venezuela. Dominican Republic. Ecuador: lowlands. Nicaragua: very widespread in all but most formal contexts. Panama: uniform except in some careful, professional speech. Puerto Rico. Wikipedia Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be prounced [h] or completely dropped /s/ → [h] → [∅] Venezuela yy, Mexico Canfield Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be debuccalized to [h] when word initial after a vowel /s/ → [h] / V#___ la semana → [la'hemana] Venezuela yy, Honduras; many areas Lipski Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may become [h] when intervocalic within a word /s/ → [h] / V___V presidente → [prehi'ðente] Venezuela yy, Honduras; many areas Lipski Debuccalization of /s/ when word final before vowel Desbucalización de /s/ en fin de palabra antes de vowel /s/ is debuccalized when word final before vowel /s/ → [h] / ___#V /s/ → [h] when word final before vowel es así → ['eha'si] Carribean and elsewhere Guitart Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be debuccalized to [h] when syllable final /s/ → [h] / ___$ Venezuela yy, Bolivia: llanos. Chile. Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Pacific coast. Paraguay: in almost all cases. Canfield Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ becomes [h] before another consonant /s/ → [h] / ___C esto → [ˈe̞ʰto] Venezuela yy, Argentina: popular speech. Honduras. Uraguay: except in careful speech. Wikipedia S espesa S espesa /s/ is apicalized ("s espesa") /s/ → [s̺] "s espesa" /s/ → [s̺] Castilla Guitart /s/ apico-alveolar ("s espesa") La fricativa alveolar sorda se articula usando el apice para formar un pasaje estrecho contra la zona anterior de la cresta alveolar /s/ → [s̺] /___ TBD sabroso → [s˽a.'βɾo.s˽o] sospechosa → [s̺os̺.pe.'t͡ʃo.s̺a] General Piñeros /s/ lamino-alveolar ("s espesa") La fricativa alveolar sorda se articula usando el apice para formar un pasaje estrecho contra la zona anterior de la cresta alveolar /s/ → [s̺] /___ TBD sabroso → [s˽a.'βɾo.s˽o] sospechosa → [s̺os̺.pe.'t͡ʃo.s̺a] Chile. Uruguay. Cuba. Panama. Colombia. Puerto Rico. Peru. Costa Rica. Mexico. Piñeros Voicing of /s/ Sonorización de /s/ /s/ may be voiced when word-final before vowel /s/ → [z] / V___#V [-voice +alveolar +fricative] → [+voice +alveolar +fricative] / V___#V las amigas → [laza'miɣas]; Quito and elsewhere Guitart Sonorización de la fricativa /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be pronounced [z] when word final before vowel /s/ → [z] / ___#V las aguas → [laz 'aɣwas] Venezuela yy, Ecuador; central core; almost unique in America Canfield Sonorización de la fricativa /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may become [z] when word final before vowel, and even intervocalically, sometimes /s/ → [z] / {___#V} OR {V___V sometimes} Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Apicoalveolarización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be apicoalveolarized to [ʃ] /s/ → [ʃ] Venezuela yy, Colombia; in many speakers Canfield Dentalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ may be pronounced [θ] /s/ → [θ] Venezuela yy, Honduras; some speakers Lipski Elisión de fricativas The alveolar fricative /s/ may be dropped when syntagma-final /s/ → [∅] / ___+ Venezuela yy, Paraguay; mostly Lipski Distincción entre /s/, /l/, and /r/ /s/, /l/, and /r/ are distinguished and clearly pronounced / ___$ Venezuela yy, Venezuela Canfield Velarización de /t/ en diminutivos The dental stop /t/ may be velarized to [k] in diminutives /t/ → [k] / ___in diminutives momentito → [momen'tiko] Venezuela yy, Venezuela; also common in Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic Canfield Velarización de oclusiva dental /t/, /d/ may be pronounced [tᵞ], [dᵞ] /t/, /d/ → [tᵞ], [dᵞ] Venezuela yy, Paraguay; frequency unclear Lipski Alveolarización de los grupos de oclusiva dental + vibrante /tr/ may be pronounced alveolarized /tr/ → [dʒ] Is [dʒ] the alveolarized form of /tr/? Venezuela yy, Paraguay Lipski Asibilación de /tɾ/ /tɾ/ may become [tʐ] /tɾ/ → [tʐ] Venezuela yy, Chile Canfield Palatalización de /tʃ/ /tʃ/ may be pronounced [tj] /tʃ/ → [tj] noche → [notje] Venezuela yy, Puerto Rico; except parts of southwest Canfield Palatalización de /tʃ/ The velar affricate /tʃ/ may become palatalized to [tʲ] /tʃ/ → [tʲ] Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Alveolarización de /t̪ʃ/ The affricate /tʃ/ may be alveolarized to [t͡s] or [t̪ˢ] /tʃ/ → [t͡s], [t̪ˢ] Venezuela yy, Chile; upper-class Wikipedia Deaffrication of tʃ Deafricazión de tʃ /tʃ/ may lose its affrication to become [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] mucho → ['muʃo] Panama and elsewhere Guitart Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal The alveopalatal affricate /tʃ/ may be deaffricatized to [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] Chile → [ˈʃiːle] muchacho → [muʃaʃo] especially when not word-initial Venezuela yy, Chile: lower-class. Cuba. Mexico: Northern Western Mexico, and variants influenced by Mayan languages. Panama: Panama City; less educated speakers. Peru: sometimes. Wikipedia Africación de los grupos de oclusiva dental + vibrante Los fonos de los grupos /t̪ɾ/ y /d̪ɾ/ se fusionan en uno solo creando así una consonante africada retrofleja: [ʈ͡ʂ] o [ɖ͡ʐ] respectivamente /t̪ɾ/, /d̪ɾ/ → [ʈ͡ʂ], [ɖ͡ʐ] /___ TBD otro → ['oʈ͡ʂo] tres → ['ʈ͡ʂes] drama → ['ɖ͡ʐa.ma] madre → ['ma.ɖ͡ʐe] Chile. Costa Rica. Piñeros Alveolarización de /t̪ʃ/ The affricate /t̪ʃ/ may be alveolarized to become [t͡s] /t̪͡ʃ/ → [t͡s] Venezuela yy, Chile Canfield Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal La africada alveopalatal /t͡ʃ/ pierde el componente oclusivo de su articulación, lo cual la convierte en la fricativa alveopalatal [ʃ]. /t͡ʃ/ → [ʃ] /___ TBD muchacho → [mu.'ʃa.ʃo] derecho → [d̪e.'re.ʃo] Cuba. Piñeros Asimilación de /x/ /x/ (jota) prepalatal or postpalatal depending on vocalic environment /x/ (jota) prepalatal or postpalatal depending on vocalic environment Venezuela yy, Mexico Canfield Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ is debuccalized to [h] /x/ → [h] Venezuela yy, Bolivia. Columbia. Dominican Republic. El Salvador. Guatemala. Honduras. Mexico: Southern Coasts. Nicaragua. Puerto Rico. Venezuela. Canfield Debuccalization of initial /x/ Desbucalización de /x/ en inicio de silaba /x/ is debuccalized to /h/ when syllable-initial /x/ → [h] / #___ /x/ → [h] gente → ['hente] Various regions Guitart Desbucalización de /x/ inicial En inicio de silaba, la fricativa velar sorda pierde sus gestos bucales, lo cual la convierte en [h] /x/ → [h] / $___ TBD Juana → ['hu̯a.na] pareja → [pa.'ɾe.ha] Venezuela. Puerto Rico. Piñeros Debuccalization of /x/ Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ may be debuccalized to [h] /x/ → [h] jamón → [ha'mon]; Puerto Rico Guitart Preservación de /x/ /x/ = [x] /x/ → [x] Venezuela yy, Uraguay Lipski Palatalización de /x/ Antes de una vocal anterior como [i] o [e], la constricción velar de /x/ se desplaza de la zona velar a la zona palatal resultando en [ç]. /x/ → [ç] / ___VAnt TBD agente → [a.'çe̞n̪.t̪e] gitano → [çi.'t̪a.no] Chile. Piñeros Palatalización de /x/ /x/ may become [ç] before e and i /x/ → [ç] / ___[e] OR [i] Venezuela yy, Chile Canfield Palatalización de /x/ /x/ may be pronounced [ç] /x/ → [ç] Venezuela yy, Paraguay Lipski Uvularización de /x/ /x/ may be pronounced [χ] /x/ → [χ] Venezuela yy, Mexico; Oaxaca, Mayan influence Canfield Uvularización de /x/ La constricción velar de /x/ se desplaza de la zona velar a la zona uvular resultando en [χ]. Lo más común es que esto ocurra cuando /x/ aparece antes de una vocal posterior como [o] o [u]. /x/ → [χ] / ___V Posterior ([o], [u]) TBD juez → ['χu̯eθ] conejo → [ko.'ne̞.χo] General Piñeros Elisión de fricativas /x/ may be dropped when intervocalic, especially between non-front vowels /x/ → [∅] / V___Vespecially between non-front vowels trabajo → [tra'βao] Venezuela yy, Nicaragua Lipski Elisión de fricativas The velar fricative /x/ may be dropped intervocally in emphatic expressions /x/ → [∅] / V___Vintervocally in emphatic expressions pendejo → [pen'deo]; México → ['meiko] Venezuela yy, El Salvador Canfield Affrication of ɟ Africazión de ɟ /ɟ/ may be affricated to [dʒ] /ɟ/ → [dʒ] /ɟ/ → [dʒ] yo → ['dʒo] ya yo llamé → ['dʒa'dʒoʒda'me] Puerto Rico, jovenes en EE.UU. continental Guitart Depalatalization of /ɟ/ Depalatalización de /ɟ/ The palatal fricative /ɟ/ may be depalatalized to become [ʒ] or [dʒ] /ɟ/ → [ʒ] → [dʒ] / ___ [+palatal +fricative +voiced] → [-palatal +post-alveolar +voiced +fricative] → [-palatal +post-alveolar +voiced -fricative +affricate] / ___ Various Guitart Assibilation of /ɟ/ Asibilación de /ɟ/ /ɟ/ may be assibilated to [ʒ] or [ʃ] /ɟ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] /ɟ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] ya yo llamé → ['ʒa'ʒoʒa'me] → ['ʃa'ʃoʃa'me] Buenos Aires, Montevideo Guitart /ɲ/ becomes [nj] before vowels other than [i] /ɲ/ se convierte en [nj] antes de vocales excepto [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] before vowels other than [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] / ___V except [i] /ɲ/ → [nj] before vowels other than [i] baño → ['banjo]; Argentina Guitart Assimilation of /ɾ/ (voiced) Asimilación de /ɾ/ (sonor) /ɾ/ before a voiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be gemminate /ɾ/ → C / ___C[+voiced] /ɾ/ + C(voiced) → CC cerveza → [seb'besa]; Western Cuba Guitart Asimilación total de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may be dropped and the following consonant doubled /ɾ/ → CC / ___C carne → ['kanne] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic Canfield Asimilación total de vibrante simple En fin de sílaba, la vibrante simple adquiere todos los rasgos de la consonante siguiente, lo cual la convierte en el componente inicial de una geminada. /ɾ/ → CC /___C$ TBD parque → ['pak.ke] curva → ['kub.ba] carlos → ['kal.lo̞h] General Piñeros Assimilation of /ɾ/ (unvoiced) Asimilación de /ɾ/ (sordo) /ɾ/ before an unvoiced consonant may be assimilated to the consonant, causing it to be voiced /ɾ/ → C[+voiced] / ___C[-voiced] /ɾ/ + C(unvoiced) → C(voiced) + C cerca → ['segka]; Western Cuba Guitart Vocalización de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may become the semivowel [i̯] /ɾ/ → [i̯] [+semivowel] / ___$ carne → ['kaine] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic; in the north Canfield doesn't say ___$; that's from Piñeros Canfield Vocalización de vibrante simple En fin de sílaba, la vibrante simple se convierte en la semivocal [i̯]. /ɾ/ → [i̯] /___$ TBD cortar → ['ko̞i̯.'t̪ai̯] perder → [pe̞i̯.'ðe̞i̯] General Piñeros Vocalization of /ɾ/ Vocalización de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ may be pronounced [j] when postnuclear /ɾ/ → [j] / §___ /ɾ/ → [j] when postnuclear carta → ['kajta]; rural Northern Dominican Republic and elsewhere Guitart Lateralización de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may be lateralized to become [l], usually at the end of a syllable /ɾ/ → [l] / ___$ carne → ['kalne] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic: Santo Domingo. Honduras: some areas in interior. Canfield Lateralization of /ɾ/ Lateralización de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ may be pronounced [l] when postnuclear ("lambdacismo") /ɾ/ → [l] / §___ /ɾ/ → [l] when postnuclear ("lambdacismo") carta → ['kalta]; hablar → ['aβlal]; Puerto Rico Guitart Lateralización de vibrante simple La vibrante simple se convierte en la lateral [l]. Lo más común es que esto ocurra cuando la consonante es final de sílaba. /ɾ/ → [l] /___$ TBD marca → ['mal.ka] hacer → [a.'se̞l] Cuba. Puerto Rico. Piñeros Multiplicación de vibrante simple The alveolar tap /ɾ/ may become the alveolar trill [r] /ɾ/ → [r] Venezuela yy, Ecuador; lowlands Canfield Assibilation of /ɾ/ when word final Asibilación de /ɾ/ en fin de palabra /ɾ/ may be assibilated to [z̺] when word final /ɾ/ → [z̺] / ___# /ɾ/ → [z̺] when word final mirar → ['miɾaz̺]; parts of Mexico Guitart Approximation of /ɾ/ after tautosyllabic consonant Aproximación de /ɾ/ después de consonante tautosilábica The simple vibrant /ɾ/ may be pronounced as the approximant [ɹ] after a tautosyllabic consonant /ɾ/ → [ɹ] / C___§ /ɾ/ → [ɹ] after tautosyllabic consonant tres → ['tɹes]; Costa Rica Guitart Retroflexión de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ has retroflex variant [ɽ] /ɾ/ → [ɽ] Venezuela yy, Mexico; Yucatán Canfield Desbucalización de consonantes líquidas /ɾ/, /l/ may be pronounced [h] (or less frequently [∅]) before a consonant (/r/ more so than /l/) /ɾ/, /l/ → [h] / ___C /r/ more so than /l/ Venezuela yy, Panama; lower classes, countryside Lipski Elisión de consonantes líquidas /ɾ/, /l/ may be dropped when syllable final, especially /ɾ/ at end of infinitives (/r/ more so than /l/) /ɾ/, /l/ → [∅] / ___$ especially /ɾ/ at end of infinitives (/r/ more so than /l/) Venezuela yy, Panama; lower classes, countryside Lipski Aproximatización de vibrantes /ɾ/, /r/ may be pronounced [ɹ] /ɾ/, /r/ → [ɹ] Venezuela yy, Nicaragua; speakers for whom Spanish is a second language Lipski Asimilación total de /ɾ/ /ɾn/ may be assimilated to [nn] /ɾn/ → [nn] jornada → [xonˈn̪aː] Venezuela yy, Chile Wikipedia Nivelicación de /ʎ/ y /ɣ/ /ʎ/ and /ɣ/ leveled to one phoneme /ʎ/ and /ɣ/ leveled to one phoneme — [ɣ]? Venezuela yy, Mexico Canfield Diferencia entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished Venezuela yy, Colombia. Paraguay. Canfield Falta de diferencia entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ are not distinguished /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ not distinguished Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Delateralización de /ʎ/ (yeísmo) The palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ may become the palatal approximant [j] /ʎ/ → [j] cayó, calló → [kaˈjo] Venezuela yy, Dominican Republic. El Salvador. Chile. Peru: highlands of the north, especially among urban, well-educated class. Venezuela. Is this what Canfield meant? Canfield Africación de /ʎ/ /ʎ/ may be pronounced [ɟ͡ʝ] when intervocalic /ʎ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] / V___V Venezuela yy, Paraguay; frequently Lipski Asibilación de /ʎ/ The palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ may become the postalveolar fricative [ʒ] /ʎ/ → [ʒ] valla → ['βaʒa]; opposed to /j/ = [j] Venezuela yy, Ecuador; central core Canfield Distincción entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ are not merged /ʎ/ ≠ /ʝ/ halla [haʎa] ≠ haya [aja] Venezuela yy, Bolivia Canfield Sheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ become [ʃ] (sheísmo) /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʃ] Venezuela yy, Argentina; Buenos Aires Wikipedia Zheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ may be pronounced [ʒ] (zheísmo) /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] Venezuela yy, Argentina; porteño, south through Patagonia and east of a line running from Córdoba to Bariloche Wikipedia Zheísmo and sheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ may be pronounced [ʒ] or [ʃ] /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] Venezuela yy, Uraguay; [ʃ] not as common as in Buenos Aires Lipski Assibilacion de /j/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ assibilate to become [ʒ], [ʝ] /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ], [ʝ] Venezuela yy, Argentina; Santiago del Estero Canfield Africación de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ is so tense it is heard as an affricate [ɟ͡ʝ], intervocalically /ʝ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] / V___V Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Assibilacion de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ may be pronounced [ʒ] when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [ʒ] / V___V caballo → [kaβ'aʒo] Venezuela yy, Mexico; Oaxaca, elsewhere Canfield Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V bella → [beja] capilla → [ka'pia]; sometimes becomes [ʒ] Venezuela yy, Costa Rica. Guatemala. Honduras. Mexico. Lipski Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ may be dropped when intervocalic with /e/ and /i/ /ʝ/ → [∅] / ___[+front + vowel] /e/ OR /i/ gallina → [ga'ina]; sello → ['seo]; calle → ['cae] Venezuela yy, Nicaragua Lipski Seseo Seseo “z”, “ce”, and “ci” are pronounced like “s” (seseo) /θ/ → [s] / ___ for orthographic “z”, “ce”, and “ci” (seseo) z, ce, ci → [θ] caza → ['kaθa]; cine → ['θine] Castilla Guitart Desbucalización de fricativas En fin de sílaba las fricativas sordas /s/, /θ/, /f/, y /x/ pierden sus gestos bucales, lo cual las convierte en [h] OR [ɦ], según sea la sonoridad del fono siguiente. La desbucalización es mas común con /s/ por ser la fricativa más frecuente, pero también afecta a /θ/, /f/, y /x/ en las pocas palabras donde estas consonantes aparecen en fin de silaba. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§ TBD pastas → ['pah.t̪ah] los mismos → [loɦ.'miɦ.mo̞h] hazlo → ['aɦ.lo] afta → ['ah.t̪a] reloj → [re.'lo̞h] Chile. Uruguay. Cuba. Panama. Puerto Rico. Piñeros Sonorización de fricativas En fin de sílaba y antes de una consonante sonora, las fricativas sordas /s/, /θ/, /f/, y /x/ se sonorizan, lo cual les convierte en [z] OR [z̺], [z], [v], y [ɣ], respectivamente. La sonorización es más común con /s/ por ser la fricativa más frecuente, pero también afecta a /θ/, /f/, y /x/ en las pocas palabras donde estas consonantes aperecen en fin de sílaba. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [z], [z], [v], [ɣ] / ___§CSon TBD isla → ['iz.la] OR ['iz̺.la] asno → ['az.no] OR ['az̺.no] tizne → ['t̪ið.ne] afgano → [av.'ga.no] boj liso → ['boɣ.'li.so] Colombia. Peru. Costa Rica. Mexico. Piñeros Elisión de fricativas En fin de sílaba las fricativas sordas /s/, /θ/, /f/, y /x/ se eliden, lo cual resulta en el cero fonético [∅]. /θ/, /s/, /f/, /x/ → [∅] / ___§ TBD los cuentos → [lo.'ku̯e̞n̪.t̪o] tres libros → ['t̪re 'li.βɾo] luz → ['lu] chef → ['t͡ʃe] reloj → [re.'lo̞] Chile. Uruguay. Panama. ve. Piñeros Elisión de consonante en final de palabra C may be dropped in word final position C → [∅] / ___# Venezuela yy, Paraguay; mostly Lipski Misterio Linski C#V → C[ʔ]V C#V → C[ʔ]V Huh? Venezuela yy, Paraguay Lipski Falta de elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /d/ is not dropped in past participles ending in -ado NOT(/'ado/ → ['ao] / ___) Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Asibilación de vibrantes The vibrants /r/ are /ɾ/ are not pronounced [ʐ] NOT(/r/, /ɾ/ → [ʐ]) Venezuela yy, Paraguay Lipski Falta de Desbucalización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ ↛ [h] NOT(/s/ → [h]) Venezuela yy, Peru Lipski Falta de apicoalveolarización de /s/ The alveolar fricative /s/ is not apicoalveolar NOT(/s/ → [ʃ] apicoalveolar ) Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Falta de asibilación de vibrante simple The alveolar trill /r/ is not assibilated to [ʐ] or [ʂ] NOT(/ɾ/ → [ʐ] OR [ʂ] /___$||) Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Falta de fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ is not pronounced [ʝ] NOT(/ʎ/ → [ʝ] / ___) Venezuela yy, Peru; highlands of the south, Cuzco, Puno Lipski /s/ sibilante y estriado The alveolar fricative /s/ tensely grooved and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Andes) The alveolar fricative /s/ tensely grooved and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Andes) Venezuela yy, Guatemala Canfield Reducción de vocales dropping a vowel (vowel reduction), in the unstressed syllable, following or preceeding primary stress, is very common V → [∅] / [+stress]___ OR ___[+stress] Potsí (for Potosí), ofsina (for oficina), cochs (for coches) Venezuela yy, Bolivia. Peru. Canfield Reducción de vocales Vowel reduction, in the unstressed syllable, following or preceeding primary stress, is very common V → [∅] / [+vowel +stressed]___ OR ___[+vowel +stressed] trastos → [ˈtɾasts]; pesos, pesas, peces → [ˈpesᵊs]; pastas, pastes, pastos → [ˈpasts] Venezuela yy, Mexico Canfield Reducción de vocales Vowels are reduced or dropped entirely in unstressed syllables V → [∅] / ___in unstressed syllables oficina → [of'sina]; accidentes → [aksi'dents]; pase usted → [pas'sted] Venezuela yy, Ecuador; serrano Canfield Reducción de vocales vowels may be dropped in unstressed syllables V[+vowel -stress] → [∅] partes → [parts], etc. Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Desbucalización de las fricativas velares [h]+[β̞], [h]+[ɣ̞] may be debuccalized to [f], [x], after /s/ becomes [h] [hβ̞], [hɣ̞] → [f], [x] after /s/ → [h] resbaló → [rɛfaˈloː]; rasgó → [raˈxoː] Venezuela yy, Chile Wikipedia Voiceless alveolar affricate [t͡s] and lateral alveolar affricate [t͡ɬ] [t͡s], [t͡ɬ] due to influence from local languages like Nahuatl [t͡s], [t͡ɬ] due to influence from local languages like Nahuatl tlapalería → [t͡ɬapaleˈɾia]; Xola → [ˈʃola] Venezuela yy, Mexico Wikipedia Asibilación de vibrante simple En fin de sílaba, y especialmente antes de pausa, la vibrante simple se asiliba para convertirse en la fricativa retrofleja sonora [ʐ] o sorda [ʂ]. [ʐ] /ɾ/ → [ʐ] OR [ʂ] /___$|| TBD amor → [a.'mo̞ʐ] OR [a.'mo̞ʂ] pedir → [pe.'ði̯ʐ] OR [pe.'ði̯ʂ] Chile. Costa Rica. Piñeros Consonantismo fuerte lacks weak consonantismo of the coasts lacks weak consonantismo of the coasts Venezuela yy, Colombia Canfield Voseo voseo voseo Venezuela yy, Venezuela; Zulia and some parts of Falcón and Trujillo Wikipedia